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MPlayer(1)               The Movie Player              MPlayer(1)


NAME
       mplayer  - movie player
       mencoder - movie encoder

SYNOPSIS
       mplayer [options] [file|URL|playlist|-]
       mplayer [options] file1 [specific options] [file2]
       [specific options]
       mplayer [options] {group of files and options} [group-
       specific options]
       mplayer [dvd|dvdnav]://[title|[start_title]-end_title]
       [options]
       mplayer vcd://track[/device]
       mplayer tv://[channel][/input_id] [options]
       mplayer radio://[channel|frequency][/capture] [options]
       mplayer pvr:// [options]
       mplayer dvb://[card_number@]channel [options]
       mplayer mf://[filemask|@listfile] [-mf options] [options]
       mplayer [cdda|cddb]://track[-endtrack][:speed][/device]
       [options]
       mplayer cue://file[:track] [options]
       mplayer
       [file|mms[t]|http|http_proxy|rt[s]p|ftp|udp|unsv|smb]://
       [user:pass@]URL[:port] [options]
       mplayer sdp://file [options]
       mplayer mpst://host[:port]/URL [options]
       mplayer tivo://host/[list|llist|fsid] [options]
       gmplayer [options] [-skin skin]
       mencoder [options] file [file|URL|-] [-o file |
       file://file | smb://[user:pass@]host/filepath]
       mencoder [options] file1 [specific options] [file2]
       [specific options]

DESCRIPTION
       mplayer  is  a  movie player for Linux (runs on many other
       platforms and CPU architectures, see  the  documentation).
       It   plays   most   MPEG/:VOB,   AVI,  ASF/:WMA/:WMV,  RM,
       QT/:MOV/:MP4,  Ogg/:OGM,  MKV,  VIVO,  FLI,   NuppelVideo,
       yuv4mpeg, FILM and RoQ files, supported by many native and
       binary codecs.  You can watch Video CD, SVCD,  DVD,  3ivx,
       DivX 3/4/5 and even WMV movies, too.

       MPlayer  supports  a  wide range of video and audio output
       drivers.  It works with X11, Xv, DGA, OpenGL, SVGAlib, fb-
       dev, AAlib, libcaca, DirectFB, Quartz, Mac OS X CoreVideo,
       but you can also use GGI, SDL  (and  all  their  drivers),
       VESA  (on  every  VESA-compatible card, even without X11),
       some low-level card-specific drivers (for Matrox, 3dfx and
       ATI)  and  some  hardware MPEG decoder boards, such as the
       Siemens DVB, Hauppauge PVR (IVTV), DXR2  and  DXR3/:Holly-
       wood+.  Most of them support software or hardware scaling,
       so you can enjoy movies in fullscreen mode.

       MPlayer has an onscreen display (OSD) for status  informa-



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       tion,  nice  big  antialiased  shaded subtitles and visual
       feedback  for  keyboard  controls.   European/:ISO8859-1,2
       (Hungarian,  English,  Czech,  etc),  Cyrillic  and Korean
       fonts are supported along with 12  subtitle  formats  (Mi-
       croDVD,  SubRip,  OGM,  SubViewer, Sami, VPlayer, RT, SSA,
       AQTitle, JACOsub, PJS and our own: MPsub) and  DVD  subti-
       tles (SPU streams, VOBsub and Closed Captions).

       mencoder  (MPlayer's  Movie Encoder) is a simple movie en-
       coder, designed to  encode  MPlayer-playable  movies  (see
       above)  to other MPlayer-playable formats (see below).  It
       encodes to  MPEG-4  (DivX/Xvid),  one  of  the  libavcodec
       codecs  and  PCM/:MP3/:VBRMP3  audio  in 1, 2 or 3 passes.
       Furthermore it has stream copying  abilities,  a  powerful
       filter  system  (crop,  expand, flip, postprocess, rotate,
       scale, noise, RGB/:YUV conversion) and more.

       gmplayer is MPlayer with a graphical user  interface.   It
       has the same options as MPlayer.

       Usage  examples to get you started quickly can be found at
       the end of this man page.

       Also see the HTML documentation!

INTERACTIVE CONTROL
       MPlayer has a fully configurable,  command-driven  control
       layer  which allows you to control MPlayer using keyboard,
       mouse, joystick or remote control (with  LIRC).   See  the
       -input option for ways to customize it.

       keyboard control
              <- and ->
                   Seek backward/:forward 10 seconds.
              up and down
                   Seek forward/:backward 1 minute.
              pgup and pgdown
                   Seek forward/:backward 10 minutes.
              [ and ]
                   Decrease/increase  current  playback  speed by
                   10%.
              { and }
                   Halve/double current playback speed.
              backspace
                   Reset playback speed to normal.
              < and >
                   Go backward/:forward in the playlist.
              ENTER
                   Go forward in the playlist, even over the end.
              HOME and END
                   next/:previous  playtree  entry  in the parent
                   list
              INS and DEL (ASX playlist only)
                   next/:previous alternative source.



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              p / SPACE
                   Pause (pressing again unpauses).
              .
                   Step forward.  Pressing once will pause movie,
                   every  consecutive  press  will play one frame
                   and then go into pause mode again  (any  other
                   key unpauses).
              q / ESC
                   Stop playing and quit.
              + and -
                   Adjust audio delay by +/- 0.1 seconds.
              / and *
                   Decrease/:increase volume.
              9 and 0
                   Decrease/:increase volume.
              ( and )
                   Adjust  audio  balance in favor of left/:right
                   channel.
              m
                   Mute sound.
              _ (MPEG-TS, AVI and libavformat only)
                   Cycle through the available video tracks.
              # (DVD, MPEG, Matroska, AVI and libavformat only)
                   Cycle through the available audio tracks.
              TAB (MPEG-TS only)
                   Cycle through the available programs.
              f
                   Toggle fullscreen (also see -fs).
              T
                   Toggle stay-on-top (also see -ontop).
              w and e
                   Decrease/:increase pan-and-scan range.
              o
                   Toggle OSD states: none / seek / seek +  timer
                   / seek + timer + total time.
              d
                   Toggle frame dropping states: none / skip dis-
                   play  /  skip  decoding  (see  -framedrop  and
                   -hardframedrop).
              v
                   Toggle subtitle visibility.
              j
                   Cycle through the available subtitles.
              y and g
                   Step forward/backward in the subtitle list.
              F
                   Toggle displaying "forced subtitles".
              a
                   Toggle subtitle alignment: top / middle / bot-
                   tom.
              x and z
                   Adjust subtitle delay by +/- 0.1 seconds.
              r and t
                   Move subtitles up/down.



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              i (-edlout mode only)
                   Set start or end of an EDL skip and  write  it
                   out to the given file.
              s (-vf screenshot only)
                   Take a screenshot.
              S (-vf screenshot only)
                   Start/stop taking screenshots.
              I
                   Show filename on the OSD.
              ! and @
                   Seek  to  the  beginning  of the previous/next
                   chapter.
              D (-vo xvmc, -vf yadif, -vf kerndeint only)
                   Activate/deactivate deinterlacer.

              (The following keys are valid  only  when  using  a
              hardware  accelerated  video  output (xv, (x)vidix,
              (x)mga, etc), the software equalizer (-vf eq or -vf
              eq2) or hue filter (-vf hue).)

              1 and 2
                   Adjust contrast.
              3 and 4
                   Adjust brightness.
              5 and 6
                   Adjust hue.
              7 and 8
                   Adjust saturation.

              (The  following  keys are valid only when using the
              quartz or macosx video output driver.)

              command + 0
                   Resize movie window to half its original size.
              command + 1
                   Resize movie window to its original size.
              command + 2
                   Resize  movie  window  to  double its original
                   size.
              command + f
                   Toggle fullscreen (also see -fs).
              command + [ and command + ]
                   Set movie window alpha.

              (The following keys are valid only when  using  the
              sdl video output driver.)

              c
                   Cycle through available fullscreen modes.
              n
                   Restore original mode.

              (The  following  keys  are valid if you have a key-
              board with multimedia keys.)



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              PAUSE
                   Pause.
              STOP
                   Stop playing and quit.
              PREVIOUS and NEXT
                   Seek backward/:forward 1 minute.

              (The following keys are only valid if  GUI  support
              is  compiled  in  and will take precedence over the
              keys defined above.)

              ENTER
                   Start playing.
              ESC
                   Stop playing.
              l
                   Load file.
              t
                   Load subtitle.
              c
                   Open skin browser.
              p
                   Open playlist.
              r
                   Open preferences.

              (The following keys are only valid if you  compiled
              with  TV  or DVB input support and will take prece-
              dence over the keys defined above.)

              h and k
                   Select previous/:next channel.
              n
                   Change norm.
              u
                   Change channel list.

              (The following keys are only valid if you  compiled
              with  dvdnav support: They are used to navigate the
              menus.)

              keypad 8
                   Select button up.
              keypad 2
                   Select button down.
              keypad 4
                   Select button left.
              keypad 6
                   Select button right.
              keypad 5
                   Return to main menu.
              keypad 7
                   Return to nearest menu (the order  of  prefer-
                   ence is: chapter->title->root).



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              keypad ENTER
                   Confirm choice.

              (The following keys are only valid if teletext sup-
              port is enabled during compilation: They  are  used
              for controlling TV teletext.)

              X    Switch teletext on/:off.
              Q and W
                   Go to next/:prev teletext page.


              mouse control
                     button 3 and button 4
                          Seek backward/:forward 1 minute.
                     button 5 and button 6
                          Decrease/:increase volume.

              joystick control
                     left and right
                          Seek backward/:forward 10 seconds.
                     up and down
                          Seek forward/:backward 1 minute.
                     button 1
                          Pause.
                     button 2
                          Toggle OSD states: none / seek / seek +
                          timer / seek + timer + total time.
                     button 3 and button 4
                          Decrease/:increase volume.

USAGE
       Every 'flag' option has a 'noflag' counterpart,  e.g.  the
       opposite of the -fs option is -nofs.

       If an option is marked as (XXX only), it will only work in
       combination with the XXX option or if XXX is compiled  in.

       NOTE:  The  suboption parser (used for example for -ao pcm
       suboptions) supports a special kind of string-escaping in-
       tended for use with external GUIs.
       It has the following format:
       %n%string_of_length_n
       EXAMPLES:
       mplayer -ao pcm:file=%10%C:test.wav test.avi
       Or in a script:
       mplayer   -ao   pcm:file=%`expr   length  "$NAME"`%"$NAME"
       test.avi


CONFIGURATION FILES
       You can put all of  the  options  in  configuration  files
       which  will  be  read  every time MPlayer/MEncoder is run.
       The system-wide configuration file  'mplayer.conf'  is  in



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       your   configuration   directory  (e.g.  /etc/:mplayer  or
       /usr/:local/:etc/:mplayer),  the  user  specific  one   is
       '~/:.mplayer/:config'.   The  configuration  file for MEn-
       coder is 'mencoder.conf' in your  configuration  directory
       (e.g. /etc/:mplayer or /usr/:local/:etc/:mplayer), the us-
       er specific one is '~/:.mplayer/:mencoder.conf.  User spe-
       cific  options  override  system-wide  options and options
       given on the command line override either.  The syntax  of
       the  configuration  files  is 'option=<value>', everything
       after a '#' is considered a comment.   Options  that  work
       without  values can be enabled by setting them to 'yes' or
       '1' or 'true' and disabled by setting them to 'no' or  '0'
       or 'false'.  Even suboptions can be specified in this way.

       You can also write file-specific configuration files.   If
       you  wish  to  have a configuration file for a file called
       'movie.avi', create a file named 'movie.avi.conf' with the
       file-specific  options  in  it  and put it in ~/.mplayer/.
       You can also put the configuration file in the same direc-
       tory  as  the  file  to be played, as long as you give the
       -use-filedir-conf option (either on the command line or in
       your global config file).

       EXAMPLE MPLAYER CONFIGURATION FILE:

       # Use Matrox driver by default.
       vo=xmga
       # I love practicing handstands while watching videos.
       flip=yes
       # Decode/encode multiple files from PNG,
       # start with mf://filemask
       mf=type=png:fps=25
       # Eerie negative images are cool.
       vf=eq2=1.0:-0.8

       EXAMPLE MENCODER CONFIGURATION FILE:

       # Make MEncoder output to a default filename.
       o=encoded.avi
       # The next 4 lines allow mencoder tv:// to start capturing immediately.
       oac=pcm=yes
       ovc=lavc=yes
       lavcopts=vcodec=mjpeg
       tv=driver=v4l2:input=1:width=768:height=576:device=/dev/video0:audiorate=48000
       # more complex default encoding option set
       lavcopts=vcodec=mpeg4:autoaspect=1
       lameopts=aq=2:vbr=4
       ovc=lavc=1
       oac=lavc=1
       passlogfile=pass1stats.log
       noautoexpand=1
       subfont-autoscale=3
       subfont-osd-scale=6
       subfont-text-scale=4



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       subalign=2
       subpos=96
       spuaa=20

PROFILES
       To ease working with different configurations profiles can
       be defined in the configuration files.  A  profile  starts
       with  its  name  between  square  brackets, e.g. '[my-pro-
       file]'.  All following options will be part  of  the  pro-
       file.   A  description (shown by -profile help) can be de-
       fined with the profile-desc option.  To end  the  profile,
       start  another  one  or  use the profile name 'default' to
       continue with normal options.

       EXAMPLE MENCODER PROFILE:


       [mpeg4]
       profile-desc="MPEG4 encoding"
       ovc=lacv=yes
       lavcopts=vcodec=mpeg4:vbitrate=1200

       [mpeg4-hq]
       profile-desc="HQ MPEG4 encoding"
       profile=mpeg4
       lavcopts=mbd=2:trell=yes:v4mv=yes

GENERAL OPTIONS
       -codecs-file <filename> (also see -afm, -ac, -vfm, -vc)
              Override the standard search path and use the spec-
              ified file instead of the builtin codecs.conf.

       -include <configuration file>
              Specify  configuration  file to be parsed after the
              default ones.

       -list-options
              Prints all available options.

       -msgcharset <charset>
              Convert console messages to the specified character
              set (default: autodetect).  Text will be in the en-
              coding specified with the --charset  configure  op-
              tion.   Set  this to "noconv" to disable conversion
              (for e.g. iconv problems).
              NOTE: The option takes effect  after  command  line
              parsing has finished.  The MPLAYER_CHARSET environ-
              ment variable can help you get  rid  of  the  first
              lines of garbled output.

       -msglevel <all=<level>:<module>=<level>:...>
              Control  verbosity  directly  for each module.  The
              'all' module changes the verbosity of all the  mod-
              ules  not explicitly specified on the command line.



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              See '-msglevel help' for a list of all modules.
              NOTE: Some messages are printed before the  command
              line  is  parsed  and are therefore not affected by
              -msglevel.  To control these messages you  have  to
              use  the  MPLAYER_VERBOSE environment variable, see
              its description below for details.
              Available levels:
                 -1   complete silence
                  0   fatal messages only
                  1   error messages
                  2   warning messages
                  3   short hints
                  4   informational messages
                  5   status messages (default)
                  6   verbose messages
                  7   debug level 2
                  8   debug level 3
                  9   debug level 4

       -quiet
              Make console output less  verbose;  in  particular,
              prevents the status line (i.e. A:   0.7 V:   0.6 A-
              V:  0.068 ...) from being displayed.   Particularly
              useful  on  slow  terminals or broken ones which do
              not properly handle carriage return (i.e. \r).

       -priority <prio> (Windows only)
              Set process priority for MPlayer according  to  the
              predefined   priorities  available  under  Windows.
              Possible values of <prio>:
                 idle|belownormal|normal|abovenormal|high|real-
                 time

              WARNING:  Using  realtime priority can cause system
              lockup.

       -profile <profile1,profile2,...>
              Use the given profile(s), -profile help displays  a
              list of the defined profiles.

       -really-quiet (also see -quiet)
              Display  even  less output and status messages than
              with -quiet.  Also suppresses the GUI error message
              boxes.

       -show-profile <profile>
              Show the description and content of a profile.

       -use-filedir-conf
              Look  for a file-specific configuration file in the
              same directory as the file that is being played.
              WARNING: May be dangerous if playing from untrusted
              media.




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       -v
              Increment  verbosity  level,  one level for each -v
              found on the command line.

PLAYER OPTIONS (MPLAYER ONLY)
       -autoq <quality> (use with -vf [s]pp)
              Dynamically changes the level of postprocessing de-
              pending  on the available spare CPU time.  The num-
              ber you specify will be  the  maximum  level  used.
              Usually  you  can use some big number.  You have to
              use -vf [s]pp without parameters in order for  this
              to work.

       -autosync <factor>
              Gradually adjusts the A/V sync based on audio delay
              measurements.  Specifying -autosync 0, the default,
              will cause frame timing to be based entirely on au-
              dio delay  measurements.   Specifying  -autosync  1
              will  do  the  same, but will subtly change the A/V
              correction algorithm.  An uneven video framerate in
              a movie which plays fine with -nosound can often be
              helped by setting this to an integer value  greater
              than  1.  The higher the value, the closer the tim-
              ing will be  to  -nosound.   Try  -autosync  30  to
              smooth out problems with sound drivers which do not
              implement a perfect audio delay measurement.   With
              this  value,  if large A/V sync offsets occur, they
              will only take about 1 or 2 seconds to settle  out.
              This  delay  in reaction time to sudden A/V offsets
              should be the only side-effect of turning this  op-
              tion on, for all sound drivers.

       -benchmark
              Prints  some  statistics  on  CPU usage and dropped
              frames at the end of playback.  Use in  combination
              with  -nosound  and  -vo null for benchmarking only
              the video codec.
              NOTE: With this option  MPlayer  will  also  ignore
              frame  duration  when  playing  only video (you can
              think of that as infinite fps).

       -colorkey <number>
              Changes the  colorkey  to  an  RGB  value  of  your
              choice.   0x000000  is black and 0xffffff is white.
              Only supported by the cvidix,  fbdev,  svga,  vesa,
              winvidix,  xmga, xvidix, xover, xv (see -vo xv:ck),
              xvmc (see  -vo  xv:ck)  and  directx  video  output
              drivers.

       -nocolorkey
              Disables   colorkeying.    Only  supported  by  the
              cvidix, fbdev, svga, vesa, winvidix, xmga,  xvidix,
              xover, xv (see -vo xv:ck), xvmc (see -vo xv:ck) and
              directx video output drivers.



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       -correct-pts (experimental)
              Switches MPlayer  to  an  experimental  mode  where
              timestamps  for video frames are calculated differ-
              ently and video filters which  add  new  frames  or
              modify  timestamps  of existing ones are supported.
              The more accurate timestamps can be visible for ex-
              ample when playing subtitles timed to scene changes
              with the -ass  option.   Without  -correct-pts  the
              subtitle  timing  will  typically  be  off  by some
              frames.  This option does not work  correctly  with
              some demuxers and codecs.

       -crash-debug (DEBUG CODE)
              Automatically  attaches  gdb upon crash or SIGTRAP.
              Support must be compiled  in  by  configuring  with
              --enable-crash-debug.

       -doubleclick-time
              Time  in  milliseconds to recognize two consecutive
              button presses as a  double-click  (default:  300).
              Set to 0 to let your windowing system decide what a
              double-click is (-vo directx only).
              NOTE: You will get slightly different behaviour de-
              pending  on  whether  you  bind  MOUSE_BTN0_DBL  or
              MOUSE_BTN0-MOUSE_BTN0_DBL.

       -edlout <filename>
              Creates a new file and writes  edit  decision  list
              (EDL)  records  to  it.   During playback, the user
              hits 'i' to mark the start or end of a skip  block.
              This  provides a starting point from which the user
              can   fine-tune    EDL    entries    later.     See
              http://www.mplayerhq.hu/:DOCS/:HTML/:en/:edl.html
              for details.

       -enqueue (GUI only)
              Enqueue files given on  the  command  line  in  the
              playlist instead of playing them immediately.

       -fixed-vo
              Enforces  a  fixed  video system for multiple files
              (one (un)initialization for all files).   Therefore
              only one window will be opened for all files.  Cur-
              rently the following drivers are  fixed-vo  compli-
              ant:  gl, gl2, mga, svga, x11, xmga, xv, xvidix and
              dfbmga.

       -framedrop (also see -hardframedrop)
              Skip displaying some frames to maintain A/V sync on
              slow  systems.   Video  filters  are not applied to
              such frames.  For B-frames even decoding is skipped
              completely.





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       -(no)gui
              Enable  or  disable  the GUI interface (default de-
              pends on binary name).  Only works as the first ar-
              gument  on  the  command  line.  Does not work as a
              config-file option.

       -h, -help, --help
              Show short summary of options.

       -hardframedrop
              More  intense  frame  dropping  (breaks  decoding).
              Leads to image distortion!

       -identify
              Shorthand  for -msglevel identify=4.  Show file pa-
              rameters  in  an  easily  parseable  format.   Also
              prints more detailed information about subtitle and
              audio track languages and IDs.  In some  cases  you
              can get more information by using -msglevel identi-
              fy=6.  For example, for a DVD it will list the time
              length  of  each  title, as well as a disk ID.  The
              wrapper script TOOLS/:midentify suppresses the oth-
              er  MPlayer output and (hopefully) shellescapes the
              filenames.

       -idle (also see -slave)
              Makes MPlayer wait idly instead  of  quitting  when
              there  is  no file to play.  Mostly useful in slave
              mode where MPlayer can be controlled through  input
              commands.

       -input <commands>
              This  option can be used to configure certain parts
              of  the  input  system.   Paths  are  relative   to
              ~/.mplayer/.
              NOTE:  Autorepeat  is  currently  only supported by
              joysticks.

              Available commands are:

                 conf=<filename>
                      Specify input configuration file other than
                      the     default    ~/:.mplayer/:input.conf.
                      ~/:.mplayer/:<filename> is  assumed  if  no
                      full path is given.
                 ar-delay
                      Delay  in  milliseconds  before we start to
                      autorepeat a key (0 to disable).
                 ar-rate
                      Number of key presses to generate per  sec-
                      ond on autorepeat.
                 keylist
                      Prints  all  keys that can be bound to com-
                      mands.



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                 cmdlist
                      Prints all commands that can  be  bound  to
                      keys.
                 js-dev
                      Specifies  the  joystick device to use (de-
                      fault: /dev/:input/:js0).
                 file=<filename>
                      Read commands from the given file.   Mostly
                      useful with a FIFO.
                      NOTE: When the given file is a FIFO MPlayer
                      opens both ends so you can do several 'echo
                      "seek 10" > mp_pipe' and the pipe will stay
                      valid.

       -key-fifo-size <2-65000>
              Specify the size  of  the  FIFO  that  buffers  key
              events  (default:  7).  A FIFO of size n can buffer
              (n-1) events.  If it is too small some  events  may
              be lost (leading to "stuck mouse buttons" and simi-
              lar effects).  If it is too big, MPlayer  may  seem
              to hang while it processes the buffered events.  To
              get the same behavior as before this option was in-
              troduced,  set  it  to 2 for Linux or 1024 for Win-
              dows.

       -lircconf <filename> (LIRC only)
              Specifies a configuration file for  LIRC  (default:
              ~/.lircrc).

       -list-properties
              Print a list of the available properties.

       -loop <number>
              Loops  movie playback <number> times.  0 means for-
              ever.

       -menu (OSD menu only)
              Turn on OSD menu support.

       -menu-cfg <filename> (OSD menu only)
              Use an alternative menu.conf.

       -menu-chroot <path> (OSD menu only)
              Chroot the file selection menu to a specific  loca-
              tion.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -menu-chroot=/home
                      Will  restrict  the  file selection menu to
                      /:home and downward (i.e. no  access  to  /
                      will   be   possible,  but  /home/user_name
                      will).





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       -menu-keepdir (OSD menu only)
              File browser starts from the  last  known  location
              instead of current directory.

       -menu-root <value> (OSD menu only)
              Specify the main menu.

       -menu-startup (OSD menu only)
              Display the main menu at MPlayer startup.

       -mouse-movements
              Permit  MPlayer  to receive pointer events reported
              by the video output driver (currently only  deriva-
              tives  of  X11 are supported).  Necessary to select
              the buttons in DVD menus.

       -noconsolecontrols
              Prevent MPlayer from reading key events from  stan-
              dard input.  Useful when reading data from standard
              input.  This is automatically  enabled  when  -  is
              found  on  the  command line.  There are situations
              where you have to set it manually, e.g. if you open
              /dev/:stdin (or the equivalent on your system), use
              stdin in a playlist or intend to  read  from  stdin
              later  on  via  the loadfile or loadlist slave com-
              mands.

       -nojoystick
              Turns off joystick support.

       -nolirc
              Turns off LIRC support.

       -nomouseinput
              Disable mouse button press/:release input (mozplay-
              erxp's context menu relies on this option).

       -rtc (RTC only)
              Turns  on  usage of the Linux RTC (realtime clock -
              /dev/:rtc) as timing mechanism.  This wakes up  the
              process  every  1/1024 seconds to check the current
              time.  Useless with modern Linux kernels configured
              for desktop use as they already wake up the process
              with  similar  accuracy  when  using  normal  timed
              sleep.

       -playing-msg <string>
              Print  out  a string before starting playback.  The
              following expansions are supported:

                 ${NAME}
                      Expand to the value of the property NAME.





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                 $(NAME:TEXT)
                      Expand TEXT only if the  property  NAME  is
                      available.

       -playlist <filename>
              Play  files  according  to  a  playlist  file (ASX,
              Winamp, SMIL, or one-file-per-line format).
              NOTE: This option is considered an entry so options
              found  after  it will apply only to the elements of
              this playlist.
              FIXME: This needs to be  clarified  and  documented
              thoroughly.

       -rtc-device <device>
              Use the specified device for RTC timing.

       -shuffle
              Play files in random order.

       -skin <name> (GUI only)
              Loads  a skin from the directory given as parameter
              below  the  default  skin  directories,   /usr/:lo-
              cal/:share/:mplayer/:skins/:      and     ~/.mplay-
              er/:skins/.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -skin fittyfene
                      Tries            /usr/:local/:share/:mplay-
                      er/:skins/:fittyfene     and     afterwards
                      ~/.mplayer/:skins/:fittyfene.

       -slave (also see -input)
              Switches on slave mode, in which MPlayer works as a
              backend  for other programs.  Instead of intercept-
              ing keyboard events,  MPlayer  will  read  commands
              separated by a newline (\n) from stdin.
              NOTE:  See  -input cmdlist for a list of slave com-
              mands and DOCS/tech/slave.txt  for  their  descrip-
              tion.

       -softsleep
              Time frames by repeatedly checking the current time
              instead of asking the kernel to wake up MPlayer  at
              the  correct time.  Useful if your kernel timing is
              imprecise and you cannot use the RTC either.  Comes
              at the price of higher CPU consumption.

       -sstep <sec>
              Skip  <sec>  seconds after every frame.  The normal
              framerate of the movie is kept, so playback is  ac-
              celerated.  Since MPlayer can only seek to the next
              keyframe this may be inexact.





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DEMUXER/STREAM OPTIONS
       -a52drc <level>
              Select the Dynamic Range Compression level for AC-3
              audio  streams.   <level>  is a float value ranging
              from 0 to 1, where 0 means  no  compression  and  1
              (which is the default) means full compression (make
              loud passages more silent and  vice  versa).   This
              option only shows an effect if the AC-3 stream con-
              tains the required range compression information.

       -aid <ID> (also see -alang)
              Select audio channel (MPEG: 0-31,  AVI/:OGM:  1-99,
              ASF/:RM:   0-127,  VOB(AC-3):  128-159,  VOB(LPCM):
              160-191,  MPEG-TS  17-8190).   MPlayer  prints  the
              available  audio IDs when run in verbose (-v) mode.
              When playing an MPEG-TS  stream,  MPlayer/:MEncoder
              will  use  the  first program (if present) with the
              chosen audio stream.

       -alang <language code[,language code,...]> (also see -aid)
              Specify  a priority list of audio languages to use.
              Different container formats employ  different  lan-
              guage  codes.   DVDs  use ISO 639-1 two letter lan-
              guage codes, Matroska,  MPEG-TS  and  NUT  use  ISO
              639-2  three letter language codes while OGM uses a
              free-form identifier.  MPlayer prints the available
              languages when run in verbose (-v) mode.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer dvd://1 -alang hu,en
                      Chooses  the  Hungarian language track on a
                      DVD and falls back on English if  Hungarian
                      is not available.
                 mplayer -alang jpn example.mkv
                      Plays a Matroska file in Japanese.

       -audio-demuxer <[+]name> (-audiofile only)
              Force audio demuxer type for -audiofile.  Use a '+'
              before the name to force it, this  will  skip  some
              checks!   Give  the demuxer name as printed by -au-
              dio-demuxer help.  For  backward  compatibility  it
              also  accepts the demuxer ID as defined in libmpde-
              mux/:demuxer.h.  -audio-demuxer audio or -audio-de-
              muxer 17 forces MP3.

       -audiofile <filename>
              Play  audio  from an external file (WAV, MP3 or Ogg
              Vorbis) while viewing a movie.

       -audiofile-cache <kBytes>
              Enables caching for the stream used by  -audiofile,
              using the specified amount of memory.





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       -reuse-socket (udp:// only)
              Allows  a socket to be reused by other processes as
              soon as it is closed.

       -bandwidth <value> (network only)
              Specify the maximum bandwidth for network streaming
              (for  servers that are able to send content in dif-
              ferent bitrates).  Useful if you want to watch live
              streamed media behind a slow connection.  With Real
              RTSP streaming, it is also used to set the  maximum
              delivery  bandwidth  allowing  faster cache filling
              and stream dumping.

       -cache <kBytes>
              This option specifies how much memory  (in  kBytes)
              to  use  when precaching a file or URL.  Especially
              useful on slow media.

       -nocache
              Turns off caching.

       -cache-min <percentage>
              Playback will start when the cache has been  filled
              up to <percentage> of the total.

       -cache-seek-min <percentage>
              If  a seek is to be made to a position within <per-
              centage> of the cache size from the  current  posi-
              tion,  MPlayer will wait for the cache to be filled
              to this position rather than  performing  a  stream
              seek (default: 50).

       -cdda <option1:option2> (CDDA only)
              This  option can be used to tune the CD Audio read-
              ing feature of MPlayer.

              Available options are:

                 speed=<value>
                      Set CD spin speed.

                 paranoia=<0-2>
                      Set paranoia level.  Values  other  than  0
                      seem  to break playback of anything but the
                      first track.
                         0: disable checking (default)
                         1: overlap checking only
                         2: full data correction and verification

                 generic-dev=<value>
                      Use specified generic SCSI device.

                 sector-size=<value>
                      Set atomic read size.



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                 overlap=<value>
                      Force minimum overlap search during verifi-
                      cation to <value> sectors.

                 toc-bias
                      Assume that the beginning offset of track 1
                      as reported in the TOC will be addressed as
                      LBA 0.  Some Toshiba drives need  this  for
                      getting track boundaries correct.

                 toc-offset=<value>
                      Add  <value> sectors to the values reported
                      when addressing tracks.  May be negative.

                 (no)skip
                      (Never) accept imperfect  data  reconstruc-
                      tion.

       -cdrom-device <path to device>
              Specify the CD-ROM device (default: /dev/:cdrom).

       -channels <number> (also see -af channels)
              Request  the  number of playback channels (default:
              2).  MPlayer asks the decoder to decode  the  audio
              into  as many channels as specified.  Then it is up
              to the decoder to fulfill the requirement.  This is
              usually  only  important  when  playing videos with
              AC-3 audio (like DVDs).  In that case  liba52  does
              the decoding by default and correctly downmixes the
              audio into the requested number  of  channels.   To
              directly  control the number of output channels in-
              dependently of how many channels are  decoded,  use
              the channels filter.
              NOTE: This option is honored by codecs (AC-3 only),
              filters (surround) and audio output drivers (OSS at
              least).

              Available options are:

                 2    stereo
                 4    surround
                 6    full 5.1

       -chapter <chapter ID>[-<endchapter ID>] (dvd:// and
       dvdnav:// on- ly)
              Specify which chapter to start playing at.  Option-
              ally specify which chapter to end playing  at  (de-
              fault: 1).

       -cookies (network only)
              Send cookies when making HTTP requests.

       -cookies-file <filename> (network only)
              Read   HTTP   cookies   from  <filename>  (default:



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              ~/.mozilla/ and ~/.netscape/) and skip reading from
              default  locations.   The  file is assumed to be in
              Netscape format.

       -delay <sec>
              audio delay in seconds (positive or negative  float
              value)
              Negative  values delay the audio, and positive val-
              ues delay the video.  Note that this is  the  exact
              opposite of the -audio-delay MEncoder option.
              NOTE:  When used with MEncoder, this is not guaran-
              teed to work correctly with -ovc copy; use  -audio-
              delay instead.

       -ignore-start
              Ignore  the  specified starting time for streams in
              AVI files.  In MPlayer, this nullifies  stream  de-
              lays in files encoded with the -audio-delay option.
              During encoding, this option prevents MEncoder from
              transferring original stream start times to the new
              file; the  -audio-delay  option  is  not  affected.
              Note  that MEncoder sometimes adjusts stream start-
              ing times automatically to compensate  for  antici-
              pated  decoding  delays,  so do not use this option
              for encoding without testing it first.

       -demuxer <[+]name>
              Force demuxer type.  Use a '+' before the  name  to
              force it, this will skip some checks!  Give the de-
              muxer name as printed by -demuxer help.  For  back-
              ward  compatibility  it also accepts the demuxer ID
              as defined in libmpdemux/:demuxer.h.

       -dumpaudio (MPlayer only)
              Dumps raw compressed audio stream to  ./stream.dump
              (useful  with  MPEG/:AC-3,  in most other cases the
              resulting file will not be playable).  If you  give
              more  than  one  of  -dumpaudio, -dumpvideo, -dump-
              stream on the command line only the last  one  will
              work.

       -dumpfile <filename> (MPlayer only)
              Specify  which file MPlayer should dump to.  Should
              be used together with  -dumpaudio  /  -dumpvideo  /
              -dumpstream.

       -dumpstream (MPlayer only)
              Dumps the raw stream to ./stream.dump.  Useful when
              ripping from DVD or network.  If you give more than
              one  of  -dumpaudio, -dumpvideo, -dumpstream on the
              command line only the last one will work.

       -dumpvideo (MPlayer only)
              Dump raw compressed video stream  to  ./stream.dump



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              (not  very  usable).   If you give more than one of
              -dumpaudio, -dumpvideo, -dumpstream on the  command
              line only the last one will work.

       -dvbin <options> (DVB only)
              Pass the following parameters to the DVB input mod-
              ule, in order to override the default ones:

                 card=<1-4>
                      Specifies using card number  1-4  (default:
                      1).
                 file=<filename>
                      Instructs MPlayer to read the channels list
                      from  <filename>.   Default  is   ~/.mplay-
                      er/:channels.conf.{sat,ter,cbl,atsc} (based
                      on your  card  type)  or  ~/.mplayer/:chan-
                      nels.conf as a last resort.
                 timeout=<1-30>
                      Maximum number of seconds to wait when try-
                      ing to tune a frequency  before  giving  up
                      (default: 30).

       -dvd-device <path to device> (DVD only)
              Specify  the  DVD device (default: /dev/:dvd).  You
              can also specify a directory  that  contains  files
              previously  copied  directly  from a DVD (with e.g.
              vobcopy).  Note that using -dumpstream is usually a
              better  way  to  copy DVD titles in the first place
              (see the examples).

       -dvd-speed <factor or speed in KB/s> (DVD only)
              Try to limit DVD speed  (default:  0,  no  change).
              DVD base speed is about 1350KB/s, so a 8x drive can
              read at speeds up to 10800KB/s.  Slower speeds make
              the  drive  more  quiet, for watching DVDs 2700KB/s
              should be quiet and fast  enough.   MPlayer  resets
              the  speed  to  the  drive  default value on close.
              Values less than 100 mean  multiples  of  1350KB/s,
              i.e. -dvd-speed 8 selects 10800KB/s.
              NOTE:  You  need  write access to the DVD device to
              change the speed.

       -dvdangle <angle ID> (DVD only)
              Some DVD discs contain scenes that  can  be  viewed
              from  multiple  angles.   Here you can tell MPlayer
              which angles to use (default: 1).

       -edl <filename>
              Enables edit decision  list  (EDL)  actions  during
              playback.   Video  will  be  skipped over and audio
              will be muted and unmuted according to the  entries
              in   the   given   file.   See  http://www.mplayer-
              hq.hu/:DOCS/:HTML/:en/:edl.html for details on  how
              to use this.



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       -endpos <[[hh:]mm:]ss[.ms]|size[b|kb|mb]> (also see -ss
       and -sb)
              Stop at given time or byte position.
              NOTE: Byte position is enabled  only  for  MEncoder
              and  will not be accurate, as it can only stop at a
              frame boundary.  When used in conjunction with  -ss
              option,  -endpos time will shift forward by seconds
              specified with -ss.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -endpos 56
                      Stop at 56 seconds.
                 -endpos 01:10:00
                      Stop at 1 hour 10 minutes.
                 -ss 10 -endpos 56
                      Stop at 1 minute 6 seconds.
                 -endpos 100mb
                      Encode only 100 MB.

       -forceidx
              Force index rebuilding.  Useful for files with bro-
              ken  index  (A/V  desync,  etc).   This will enable
              seeking in files where seeking  was  not  possible.
              You  can  fix  the  index permanently with MEncoder
              (see the documentation).
              NOTE: This option only works if the underlying  me-
              dia  supports  seeking  (i.e. not with stdin, pipe,
              etc).

       -fps <float value>
              Override video framerate.  Useful if  the  original
              value is wrong or missing.

       -frames <number>
              Play/:convert  only  first  <number>  frames,  then
              quit.

       -hr-mp3-seek (MP3 only)
              Hi-res MP3 seeking.  Enabled when playing  from  an
              external  MP3  file, as we need to seek to the very
              exact position to keep A/V sync.  Can be slow espe-
              cially  when  seeking  backwards  since  it  has to
              rewind to the beginning to find an exact frame  po-
              sition.

       -idx (also see -forceidx)
              Rebuilds  index of files if no index was found, al-
              lowing  seeking.   Useful  with  broken/:incomplete
              downloads, or badly created files.
              NOTE:  This option only works if the underlying me-
              dia supports seeking (i.e. not  with  stdin,  pipe,
              etc).

       -noidx Skip rebuilding index file.  MEncoder skips writing



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              the index with this option.

       -ipv4-only-proxy (network only)
              Skip the proxy for IPv6 addresses.  It  will  still
              be used for IPv4 connections.

       -loadidx <index file>
              The  file  from  which to read the video index data
              saved by -saveidx.  This index  will  be  used  for
              seeking, overriding any index data contained in the
              AVI itself.  MPlayer  will  not  prevent  you  from
              loading  an  index  file generated from a different
              AVI, but this is sure to cause unfavorable results.
              NOTE:  This option is obsolete now that MPlayer has
              OpenDML support.

       -mc <seconds/frame>
              maximum A-V sync correction per frame (in seconds)

       -mf <option1:option2:...>
              Used when decoding from multiple PNG or JPEG files.

              Available options are:

                 w=<value>
                      input file width (default: autodetect)
                 h=<value>
                      input file height (default: autodetect)
                 fps=<value>
                      output fps (default: 25)
                 type=<value>
                      input file type (available: jpeg, png, tga,
                      sgi)

       -ni (AVI only)
              Force usage of non-interleaved  AVI  parser  (fixes
              playback of some bad AVI files).

       -nobps (AVI only)
              Do not use average byte/:second value for A-V sync.
              Helps with some AVI files with broken header.

       -noextbased
              Disables extension-based demuxer selection.  By de-
              fault,  when  the file type (demuxer) cannot be de-
              tected reliably (the file has no header  or  it  is
              not  reliable  enough),  the  filename extension is
              used to select the demuxer.  Always falls  back  on
              content-based demuxer selection.

       -passwd <password> (also see -user) (network only)
              Specify password for HTTP authentication.





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       -prefer-ipv4 (network only)
              Use  IPv4  on  network  connections.  Falls back on
              IPv6 automatically.

       -prefer-ipv6 (IPv6 network only)
              Use IPv6 on network  connections.   Falls  back  on
              IPv4 automatically.

       -psprobe <byte position>
              When  playing  an  MPEG-PS stream, this option lets
              you specify how many bytes in the stream  you  want
              MPlayer  to  scan  in  order  to identify the video
              codec used.  This option  is  needed  to  play  EVO
              files containing H.264 streams.

       -pvr <option1:option2:...> (PVR only)
              This  option  tunes  various encoding properties of
              the PVR capture module.  It has to be used with any
              hardware  MPEG  encoder based card supported by the
              V4L2     driver.      The      Hauppauge      WinTV
              PVR-150/250/350/500  and  all  IVTV based cards are
              known as PVR capture cards.   Be  aware  that  only
              Linux  2.6.18  kernel  and  above is able to handle
              MPEG stream through V4L2 layer.  For hardware  cap-
              ture  of an MPEG stream and watching it with MPlay-
              er/MEncoder, use 'pvr://' as a movie URL.

              Available options are:

                 aspect=<0-3>
                      Specify input aspect ratio:
                         0: 1:1
                         1: 4:3 (default)
                         2: 16:9
                         3: 2.21:1

                 arate=<32000-48000>
                      Specify encoding audio rate (default: 48000
                      Hz,  available: 32000, 44100 and 48000 Hz).

                 alayer=<1-3>
                      Specify MPEG audio layer encoding (default:
                      2).

                 abitrate=<32-448>
                      Specify audio encoding bitrate in kbps (de-
                      fault: 384).

                 amode=<value>
                      Specify  audio  encoding  mode.   Available
                      preset values are 'stereo', 'joint_stereo',
                      'dual' and 'mono' (default: stereo).





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                 vbitrate=<value>
                      Specify average video bitrate  encoding  in
                      Mbps (default: 6).

                 vmode=<value>
                      Specify video encoding mode:
                         vbr: Variable BitRate (default)
                         cbr: Constant BitRate

                 vpeak=<value>
                      Specify peak video bitrate encoding in Mbps
                      (only useful  for  VBR  encoding,  default:
                      9.6).

                 fmt=<value>
                      Choose an MPEG format for encoding:
                         ps:    MPEG-2 Program Stream (default)
                         ts:    MPEG-2 Transport Stream
                         mpeg1: MPEG-1 System Stream
                         vcd:   Video CD compatible stream
                         svcd:  Super Video CD compatible stream
                         dvd:   DVD compatible stream

       -radio <option1:option2:...> (radio only)
              These  options  set various parameters of the radio
              capture module.  For listening to radio with MPlay-
              er use 'radio://<frequency>' (if channels option is
              not given) or 'radio://<channel_number>' (if  chan-
              nels  option is given) as a movie URL.  You can see
              allowed frequency range  by  running  MPlayer  with
              '-v'.   To  start  the grabbing subsystem, use 'ra-
              dio://<frequency or channel>/capture'.  If the cap-
              ture  keyword  is not given you can listen to radio
              using the line-in cable  only.   Using  capture  to
              listen  is  not  recommended due to synchronization
              problems, which makes this process uncomfortable.

              Available options are:

                 device=<value>
                      Radio device to use  (default:  /dev/radio0
                      for Linux and /dev/tuner0 for *BSD).

                 driver=<value>
                      Radio  driver  to  use  (default:  v4l2  if
                      available, otherwise v4l).  Currently,  v4l
                      and v4l2 drivers are supported.

                 volume=<0..100>
                      sound volume for radio device (default 100)

                 freq_min=<value> (*BSD BT848 only)
                      minimum allowed frequency (default: 87.50)




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                 freq_max=<value> (*BSD BT848 only)
                      maximum allowed frequency (default: 108.00)

                 channels=<frequency>-<name>,<frequen-
                 cy>-<name>,...
                      Set channel list.   Use  _  for  spaces  in
                      names (or play with quoting ;-).  The chan-
                      nel names will then be  written  using  OSD
                      and  the  slave commands radio_step_channel
                      and radio_set_channel will be usable for  a
                      remote  control (see LIRC).  If given, num-
                      ber in movie URL will be treated as channel
                      position in channel list.
                      EXAMPLE:   radio://1,   radio://104.4,  ra-
                      dio_set_channel 1

                 adevice=<value> (radio capture only)
                      Name  of  device  to  capture  sound  from.
                      Without  such  a  name capture will be dis-
                      abled, even if the capture keyword  appears
                      in the URL.  For ALSA devices use it in the
                      form  hw=<card>.<device>.   If  the  device
                      name  contains  a  '=', the module will use
                      ALSA to capture, otherwise OSS.

                 arate=<value> (radio capture only)
                      Rate  in  samples  per   second   (default:
                      44100).
                      NOTE:  When  using  audio  capture set also
                      -rawaudio rate=<value> option with the same
                      value  as arate.  If you have problems with
                      sound speed (runs too quickly), try to play
                      with    different    rate    values   (e.g.
                      48000,44100,32000,...).

                 achannels=<value> (radio capture only)
                      Number of audio channels to capture.

       -rawaudio <option1:option2:...>
              This option lets you play  raw  audio  files.   You
              have to use -demuxer rawaudio as well.  It may also
              be used to play  audio  CDs  which  are  not  44kHz
              16-bit  stereo.   For  playing raw AC-3 streams use
              -rawaudio format=0x2000 -demuxer rawaudio.

              Available options are:

                 channels=<value>
                      number of channels
                 rate=<value>
                      rate in samples per second
                 samplesize=<value>
                      sample size in bytes




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                 bitrate=<value>
                      bitrate for rawaudio files
                 format=<value>
                      fourcc in hex

       -rawvideo <option1:option2:...>
              This option lets you play  raw  video  files.   You
              have to use -demuxer rawvideo as well.

              Available options are:

                 fps=<value>
                      rate in frames per second (default: 25.0)
                 sqcif|qcif|cif|4cif|pal|ntsc
                      set standard image size
                 w=<value>
                      image width in pixels
                 h=<value>
                      image height in pixels
                 i420|yv12|yuy2|y8
                      set colorspace
                 format=<value>
                      colorspace  (fourcc)  in hex or string con-
                      stant.  Use  -rawvideo  format=help  for  a
                      list of possible strings.
                 size=<value>
                      frame size in Bytes

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer foreman.qcif -demuxer rawvideo -rawvideo
                 qcif
                      Play the famous "foreman" sample video.
                 mplayer   sample-720x576.yuv    -demuxer
                 rawvideo    -rawvideo w=720:h=576
                      Play a raw YUV sample.

       -rtsp-port
              Used with 'rtsp://' URLs to force the client's port
              number.   This  option may be useful if you are be-
              hind a router and want to forward the  RTSP  stream
              from the server to a specific client.

       -rtsp-destination
              Used  with  'rtsp://' URLs to force the destination
              IP address to be bound.  This option may be  useful
              with some RTSP server which do not send RTP packets
              to the right interface.  If the connection  to  the
              RTSP  server  fails, use -v to see which IP address
              MPlayer tries to bind to and try to force it to one
              assigned to your computer instead.

       -rtsp-stream-over-tcp (LIVE555 and NEMESI only)
              Used  with  'rtsp://'  URLs to specify that the re-
              sulting incoming RTP and RTCP packets  be  streamed



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              over  TCP  (using the same TCP connection as RTSP).
              This option may be useful if you have a broken  in-
              ternet  connection  that does not pass incoming UDP
              packets (see http://www.live555.com/:mplayer/).

       -saveidx <filename>
              Force index rebuilding and dump the index to <file-
              name>.  Currently this only works with AVI files.
              NOTE:  This option is obsolete now that MPlayer has
              OpenDML support.

       -sb <byte position> (also see -ss)
              Seek to byte position.  Useful  for  playback  from
              CD-ROM  images or VOB files with junk at the begin-
              ning.

       -speed <0.01-100>
              Slow down or speed up playback by the factor  given
              as  parameter.   Not  guaranteed  to work correctly
              with -oac copy.

       -srate <Hz>
              Selects the output  sample  rate  to  be  used  (of
              course  sound  cards  have limits on this).  If the
              sample frequency selected is different from that of
              the current media, the resample or lavcresample au-
              dio filter will be inserted into the  audio  filter
              layer  to  compensate for the difference.  The type
              of resampling can be controlled by the -af-adv  op-
              tion.   The  default  is  fast  resampling that may
              cause distortion.

       -ss <time> (also see -sb)
              Seek to given time position.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -ss 56
                      Seeks to 56 seconds.
                 -ss 01:10:00
                      Seeks to 1 hour 10 min.

       -tskeepbroken
              Tells MPlayer not to discard TS packets reported as
              broken  in  the  stream.   Sometimes needed to play
              corrupted MPEG-TS files.

       -tsprobe <byte position>
              When playing an MPEG-TS stream,  this  option  lets
              you  specify  how many bytes in the stream you want
              MPlayer to search for the desired audio  and  video
              IDs.

       -tsprog <1-65534>
              When  playing  an  MPEG-TS  stream, you can specify



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              with this option which  program  (if  present)  you
              want to play.  Can be used with -vid and -aid.

       -tv <option1:option2:...> (TV/:PVR only)
              This option tunes various properties of the TV cap-
              ture module.  For watching  TV  with  MPlayer,  use
              'tv://'    or   'tv://<channel_number>'   or   even
              'tv://<channel_name> (see option channels for chan-
              nel_name  below)  as a movie URL.  You can also use
              'tv:///<input_id>' to start watching a movie from a
              composite  or  S-Video  input (see option input for
              details).

              Available options are:

                 noaudio
                      no sound

                 automute=<0-255> (v4l and v4l2 only)
                      If signal strength reported  by  device  is
                      less  than this value, audio and video will
                      be muted.  In most cases automute=100  will
                      be  enough.   Default  is  0 (automute dis-
                      abled).

                 driver=<value>
                      See -tv driver=help for a list of compiled-
                      in  TV  input  drivers.   available: dummy,
                      v4l, v4l2, bsdbt848 (default: autodetect)

                 device=<value>
                      Specify TV device (default:  /dev/:video0).
                      NOTE:  For the bsdbt848 driver you can pro-
                      vide both bktr and tuner device names sepa-
                      rating  them with a comma, tuner after bktr
                      (e.g. -tv device=/dev/bktr1,/dev/tuner1).

                 input=<value>
                      Specify input (default: 0 (TV), see console
                      output for available inputs).

                 freq=<value>
                      Specify  the  frequency to set the tuner to
                      (e.g. 511.250).  Not  compatible  with  the
                      channels parameter.

                 outfmt=<value>
                      Specify the output format of the tuner with
                      a preset value supported by the V4L  driver
                      (yv12,  rgb32,  rgb24,  rgb16, rgb15, uyvy,
                      yuy2, i420) or an arbitrary format given as
                      hex  value.   Try outfmt=help for a list of
                      all available formats.




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                 width=<value>
                      output window width

                 height=<value>
                      output window height

                 fps=<value>
                      framerate at which to capture video (frames
                      per second)

                 buffersize=<value>
                      maximum  size  of  the  capture  buffer  in
                      megabytes (default: dynamical)

                 norm=<value>
                      For bsdbt848 and v4l, PAL, SECAM, NTSC  are
                      available.   For v4l2, see the console out-
                      put for a list of all available norms, also
                      see the normid option below.

                 normid=<value> (v4l2 only)
                      Sets  the  TV norm to the given numeric ID.
                      The TV norm depends on  the  capture  card.
                      See the console output for a list of avail-
                      able TV norms.

                 channel=<value>
                      Set tuner to <value> channel.

                 chanlist=<value>
                      available:  europe-east,  europe-west,  us-
                      bcast, us-cable, etc

                 channels=<channel>-<name>,<channel>-<name>,...
                      Set names for channels.  NOTE: If <channel>
                      is an integer greater than 1000, it will be
                      treated  as  frequency (in kHz) rather than
                      channel name from frequency table.
                      Use _ for spaces in  names  (or  play  with
                      quoting  ;-).   The channel names will then
                      be written using OSD, and  the  slave  com-
                      mands  tv_step_channel,  tv_set_channel and
                      tv_last_channel will be usable for a remote
                      control  (see  LIRC).   Not compatible with
                      the frequency parameter.
                      NOTE: The channel number will then  be  the
                      position  in the 'channels' list, beginning
                      with 1.
                      EXAMPLE: tv://1,  tv://TV1,  tv_set_channel
                      1, tv_set_channel TV1

                 [brightness|contrast|hue|saturation]=<-100-100>
                      Set the image equalizer on the card.




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                 audiorate=<value>
                      Set audio capture bitrate.

                 forceaudio
                      Capture  audio  even  if there are no audio
                      sources reported by v4l.

                 alsa
                      Capture from ALSA.

                 amode=<0-3>
                      Choose an audio mode:
                         0: mono
                         1: stereo
                         2: language 1
                         3: language 2

                 forcechan=<1-2>
                      By default, the  count  of  recorded  audio
                      channels  is  determined  automatically  by
                      querying the audio mode from the  TV  card.
                      This  option  allows  forcing  stereo/:mono
                      recording regardless of  the  amode  option
                      and  the  values returned by v4l.  This can
                      be used for  troubleshooting  when  the  TV
                      card  is unable to report the current audio
                      mode.

                 adevice=<value>
                      Set an audio  device.   <value>  should  be
                      /dev/:xxx for OSS and a hardware ID for AL-
                      SA.  You must replace any ':' by a  '.'  in
                      the hardware ID for ALSA.

                 audioid=<value>
                      Choose an audio output of the capture card,
                      if it has more than one.

                 [volume|bass|treble|balance]=<0-65535> (v4l1)

                 [volume|bass|treble|balance]=<0-100> (v4l2)
                      These options set parameters of  the  mixer
                      on  the video capture card.  They will have
                      no effect, if your card does not have  one.
                      For  v4l2  50  maps to the default value of
                      the control, as reported by the driver.

                 gain=<0-100> (v4l2)
                      Set gain control for video devices (usually
                      webcams)  to  the  desired value and switch
                      off automatic control.  A value  of  0  en-
                      ables automatic control.  If this option is
                      omitted, gain control will not be modified.




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                 immediatemode=<bool>
                      A value of 0 means capture and buffer audio
                      and video together (default for  MEncoder).
                      A value of 1 (default for MPlayer) means to
                      do video capture only and let the audio  go
                      through  a  loopback cable from the TV card
                      to the sound card.

                 mjpeg
                      Use hardware MJPEG compression (if the card
                      supports  it).  When using this option, you
                      do not need to specify the width and height
                      of  the output window, because MPlayer will
                      determine it automatically from the decima-
                      tion value (see below).

                 decimation=<1|2|4>
                      choose the size of the picture that will be
                      compressed by hardware MJPEG compression:
                         1: full size
                             704x576    PAL
                             704x480    NTSC
                         2: medium size
                             352x288    PAL
                             352x240    NTSC
                         4: small size
                             176x144    PAL
                             176x120    NTSC

                 quality=<0-100>
                      Choose the quality of the JPEG  compression
                      (< 60 recommended for full size).

                 tdevice=<value>
                      Specify   TV   teletext   device  (example:
                      /dev/:vbi0) (default: none).

                 tformat=<format>
                      Specify TV  teletext  display  format  (de-
                      fault: 0):
                         0: opaque
                         1: transparent
                         2: opaque with inverted colors
                         3: transparent with inverted colors

                 tpage=<100-899>
                      Specify  initial  TV  teletext  page number
                      (default: 100).

                 tlang=<-1-127>
                      Specify default teletext language code (de-
                      fault:  0),  which  will be used as primary
                      language until a  type  28  packet  is  re-
                      ceived.   Useful  when  the teletext system



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                      uses a non-latin character  set,  but  lan-
                      guage  codes  are not transmitted via tele-
                      text type 28 packets for some  reason.   To
                      see  a list of supported language codes set
                      this option to -1.

       -tvscan <option1:option2:...> (TV and MPlayer only)
              Tune the TV channel  scanner.   MPlayer  will  also
              print  value  for "-tv channels=" option, including
              existing and just found channels.

              Available suboptions are:

                 autostart
                      Begin channel  scanning  immediately  after
                      startup (default: disabled).

                 period=<0.1-2.0>
                      Specify  delay  in seconds before switching
                      to next channel (default: 0.5).  Lower val-
                      ues will cause faster scanning, but can de-
                      tect inactive TV channels as active.

                 threshold=<1-100>
                      Threshold value for the signal strength (in
                      percent),  as  reported  by the device (de-
                      fault: 50).  A signal strength higher  than
                      this value will indicate that the currently
                      scanning channel is active.

       -user <username> (also see -passwd) (network only)
              Specify username for HTTP authentication.

       -user-agent <string>
              Use <string> as user agent for HTTP streaming.

       -vid <ID>
              Select video channel (MPG: 0-15, ASF: 0-255,  MPEG-
              TS:  17-8190).   When  playing  an  MPEG-TS stream,
              MPlayer/:MEncoder will use the  first  program  (if
              present) with the chosen video stream.

       -vivo <suboption> (DEBUG CODE)
              Force  audio  parameters  for the VIVO demuxer (for
              debugging purposes).  FIXME: Document this.

OSD/SUBTITLE OPTIONS
       NOTE: Also see -vf expand.

       -ass (FreeType only)
              Turn on SSA/ASS subtitle rendering.  With this  op-
              tion, libass will be used for SSA/ASS external sub-
              titles and Matroska tracks.  You may also  want  to
              use -embeddedfonts.



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       -ass-border-color <value>
              Sets the border (outline) color for text subtitles.
              The color format is RRGGBBAA.

       -ass-bottom-margin <value>
              Adds a black band at the bottom of the frame.   The
              SSA/ASS  renderer  can  place subtitles there (with
              -ass-use-margins).

       -ass-color <value>
              Sets the color for text subtitles.  The color  for-
              mat is RRGGBBAA.

       -ass-font-scale <value>
              Set  the  scale coefficient to be used for fonts in
              the SSA/ASS renderer.

       -ass-force-style <[Style.]Param=Value[,...]>
              Override some style parameters.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -ass-force-style FontName=Arial,Default.Bold=1

       -ass-hinting <type>
              Set hinting type.
                 <type>
                      0: No hinting.
                      1: FreeType autohinter, light mode.
                      2: FreeType autohinter, normal mode.
                      3: Font native hinter.
                      0-3 + 4: The same, but hinting will only be
                      performed if OSD is rendered at screen res-
                      olution and, therefore, will not be scaled.
                      The  default  value is 7 (use native hinter
                      for unscaled OSD and no hinting otherwise).

       -ass-line-spacing <value>
              Set line spacing value for SSA/ASS renderer.

       -ass-styles <filename>
              Load all SSA/ASS styles found in the specified file
              and use them for  rendering  text  subtitles.   The
              syntax  of the file is exactly like the [V4 Styles]
              / [V4+ Styles] section of SSA/ASS.

       -ass-top-margin <value>
              Adds a black band at the top  of  the  frame.   The
              SSA/ASS  renderer  can  place toptitles there (with
              -ass-use-margins).

       -ass-use-margins
              Enables placing toptitles and  subtitles  in  black
              borders when they are available.




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       -dumpjacosub (MPlayer only)
              Convert the given subtitle (specified with the -sub
              option) to the time-based JACOsub subtitle  format.
              Creates a dumpsub.js file in the current directory.

       -dumpmicrodvdsub (MPlayer only)
              Convert the given subtitle (specified with the -sub
              option) to the MicroDVD subtitle format.  Creates a
              dumpsub.sub file in the current directory.

       -dumpmpsub (MPlayer only)
              Convert the given subtitle (specified with the -sub
              option)  to MPlayer's subtitle format, MPsub.  Cre-
              ates a dump.mpsub file in the current directory.

       -dumpsami (MPlayer only)
              Convert the given subtitle (specified with the -sub
              option)  to  the  time-based  SAMI subtitle format.
              Creates a dumpsub.smi file in the current  directo-
              ry.

       -dumpsrtsub (MPlayer only)
              Convert the given subtitle (specified with the -sub
              option) to the time-based SubViewer (SRT)  subtitle
              format.   Creates a dumpsub.srt file in the current
              directory.
              NOTE: Some broken hardware  players  choke  on  SRT
              subtitle  files with Unix line endings.  If you are
              unlucky enough to have such a box, pass your subti-
              tle  files through unix2dos or a similar program to
              replace Unix line  endings  with  DOS/Windows  line
              endings.

       -dumpsub (MPlayer only) (BETA CODE)
              Dumps the subtitle substream from VOB streams.  Al-
              so see the -dump*sub and -vobsubout* options.

       -embeddedfonts (FreeType only)
              Enables extraction of Matroska embedded fonts  (de-
              fault:  disabled).   These  fonts  can  be used for
              SSA/ASS subtitle  rendering  (-ass  option).   Font
              files are created in the ~/.mplayer/:fonts directo-
              ry.
              NOTE: With  FontConfig  2.4.2  or  newer,  embedded
              fonts are opened directly from memory, and this op-
              tion is enabled by default.

       -ffactor <number>
              Resample the font alphamap.  Can be:
                 0    plain white fonts
                 0.75 very narrow black outline (default)
                 1    narrow black outline
                 10   bold black outline




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       -flip-hebrew (FriBiDi only)
              Turns on flipping subtitles using FriBiDi.

       -noflip-hebrew-commas
              Change FriBiDi's assumptions about  the  placements
              of commas in subtitles.  Use this if commas in sub-
              titles are shown at the start of a sentence instead
              of at the end.

       -font <path to font.desc file>
              Search for the OSD/:SUB fonts in an alternative di-
              rectory  (default  for  normal  fonts:   ~/:.mplay-
              er/:font/:font.desc,  default  for  FreeType fonts:
              ~/.mplayer/:subfont.ttf).
              NOTE: With FreeType,  this  option  determines  the
              path  to the text font file.  With fontconfig, this
              option determines the fontconfig font name.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -font ~/:.mplayer/:arial-14/:font.desc
                 -font ~/:.mplayer/:arialuni.ttf
                 -font 'Bitstream Vera Sans'

       -fontconfig (fontconfig only)
              Enables the usage of fontconfig managed fonts.

       -forcedsubsonly
              Display only forced subtitles for the DVD  subtitle
              stream selected by e.g. -slang.

       -fribidi-charset <charset name> (FriBiDi only)
              Specifies  the character set that will be passed to
              FriBiDi when decoding non-UTF-8 subtitles (default:
              ISO8859-8).

       -ifo <VOBsub IFO file>
              Indicate the file that will be used to load palette
              and frame size for VOBsub subtitles.

       -noautosub
              Turns off automatic subtitle file loading.

       -osd-duration <time>
              Set the duration of the OSD  messages  in  ms  (de-
              fault: 1000).

       -osdlevel <0-3> (MPlayer only)
              Specifies which mode the OSD should start in.
                 0    subtitles only
                 1    volume + seek (default)
                 2    volume + seek + timer + percentage
                 3    volume  + seek + timer + percentage + total
                      time




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       -overlapsub
              Allows the next subtitle to be displayed while  the
              current  one is still visible (default is to enable
              the support only for specific formats).

       -sid <ID> (also see -slang, -vobsubid)
              Display  the  subtitle  stream  specified  by  <ID>
              (0-31).   MPlayer prints the available subtitle IDs
              when run in verbose (-v) mode.  If you  cannot  se-
              lect  one of the subtitles on a DVD, also try -vob-
              subid.

       -slang <language code[,language code,...]> (also see -sid)
              Specify  a  priority  list of subtitle languages to
              use.  Different container formats employ  different
              language codes.  DVDs use ISO 639-1 two letter lan-
              guage codes, Matroska uses ISO 639-2  three  letter
              language codes while OGM uses a free-form identifi-
              er.  MPlayer prints the  available  languages  when
              run in verbose (-v) mode.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer dvd://1 -slang hu,en
                      Chooses  the  Hungarian subtitle track on a
                      DVD and falls back on English if  Hungarian
                      is not available.
                 mplayer -slang jpn example.mkv
                      Plays  a Matroska file with Japanese subti-
                      tles.

       -spuaa <mode>
              Antialiasing/:scaling mode for DVD/:VOBsub.  A val-
              ue  of  16 may be added to <mode> in order to force
              scaling even when original and  scaled  frame  size
              already match.  This can be employed to e.g. smooth
              subtitles with gaussian blur.  Available modes are:
                 0    none (fastest, very ugly)
                 1    approximate (broken?)
                 2    full (slow)
                 3    bilinear (default, fast and not too bad)
                 4    uses  swscaler  gaussian  blur  (looks very
                      good)

       -spualign <-1-2>
              Specify how SPU (DVD/:VOBsub) subtitles  should  be
              aligned.
                 -1   original position
                  0   Align  at top (original behavior, default).
                  1   Align at center.
                  2   Align at bottom.

       -spugauss <0.0-3.0>
              Variance parameter of gaussian used  by  -spuaa  4.
              Higher means more blur (default: 1.0).



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       -sub <subtitlefile1,subtitlefile2,...>
              Use/:display  these  subtitle files.  Only one file
              can be displayed at the same time.

       -sub-bg-alpha <0-255>
              Specify the alpha channel value for  subtitles  and
              OSD  backgrounds.  Big values mean more transparen-
              cy.  0 means completely transparent.

       -sub-bg-color <0-255>
              Specify the color value for subtitles and OSD back-
              grounds.  Currently subtitles are grayscale so this
              value is equivalent to the intensity of the  color.
              255 means white and 0 black.

       -sub-demuxer <[+]name> (-subfile only) (BETA CODE)
              Force  subtitle  demuxer  type for -subfile.  Use a
              '+' before the name to force  it,  this  will  skip
              some  checks!   Give the demuxer name as printed by
              -sub-demuxer help.  For backward  compatibility  it
              also  accepts the demuxer ID as defined in subread-
              er.h.

       -sub-fuzziness <mode>
              Adjust matching fuzziness when searching for subti-
              tles:
                 0    exact match
                 1    Load all subs containing movie name.
                 2    Load all subs in the current directory.

       -sub-no-text-pp
              Disables  any kind of text post processing done af-
              ter loading the subtitles.  Used for debug  purpos-
              es.

       -subalign <0-2>
              Specify  which  edge  of  the  subtitles  should be
              aligned at the height given by -subpos.
                 0    Align subtitle top  edge  (original  behav-
                      ior).
                 1    Align subtitle center.
                 2    Align subtitle bottom edge (default).

       -subcc
              Display  DVD  Closed Caption (CC) subtitles.  These
              are not the VOB subtitles, these are special  ASCII
              subtitles  for  the hearing impaired encoded in the
              VOB userdata stream on most region 1 DVDs.  CC sub-
              titles have not been spotted on DVDs from other re-
              gions so far.

       -subcp <codepage> (iconv only)
              If your system supports iconv(3), you can use  this
              option to specify the subtitle codepage.



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              EXAMPLE:
                 -subcp latin2
                 -subcp cp1250

       -subcp enca:<language>:<fallback codepage> (ENCA only)
              You  can  specify  your language using a two letter
              language code to make ENCA detect the codepage  au-
              tomatically.   If  unsure, enter anything and watch
              mplayer -v output for available  languages.   Fall-
              back  codepage  specifies the codepage to use, when
              autodetection fails.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -subcp enca:cs:latin2
                      Guess the encoding, assuming the  subtitles
                      are Czech, fall back on latin 2, if the de-
                      tection fails.
                 -subcp enca:pl:cp1250
                      Guess the encoding for Polish, fall back on
                      cp1250.

       -subdelay <sec>
              Delays  subtitles  by  <sec> seconds.  Can be nega-
              tive.

       -subfile <filename> (BETA CODE)
              Currently useless.  Same  as  -audiofile,  but  for
              subtitle streams (OggDS?).

       -subfont <filename> (FreeType only)
              Sets  the  subtitle font.  If no -subfont is given,
              -font is used.

       -subfont-autoscale <0-3> (FreeType only)
              Sets the autoscale mode.
              NOTE: 0 means that text scale  and  OSD  scale  are
              font heights in points.

              The mode can be:

                 0    no autoscale
                 1    proportional to movie height
                 2    proportional to movie width
                 3    proportional to movie diagonal (default)

       -subfont-blur <0-8> (FreeType only)
              Sets the font blur radius (default: 2).

       -subfont-encoding <value> (FreeType only)
              Sets the font encoding.  When set to 'unicode', all
              the glyphs from the font file will be rendered  and
              unicode will be used (default: unicode).





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       -subfont-osd-scale <0-100> (FreeType only)
              Sets  the autoscale coefficient of the OSD elements
              (default: 6).

       -subfont-outline <0-8> (FreeType only)
              Sets the font outline thickness (default: 2).

       -subfont-text-scale <0-100> (FreeType only)
              Sets the subtitle  text  autoscale  coefficient  as
              percentage of the screen size (default: 5).

       -subfps <rate>
              Specify  the  framerate  of  the subtitle file (de-
              fault: movie fps).
              NOTE: <rate> > movie fps speeds  the  subtitles  up
              for  frame-based subtitle files and slows them down
              for time-based ones.

       -subpos <0-100> (useful with -vf expand)
              Specify the position of subtitles  on  the  screen.
              The  value is the vertical position of the subtitle
              in % of the screen height.

       -subwidth <10-100>
              Specify the  maximum  width  of  subtitles  on  the
              screen.  Useful for TV-out.  The value is the width
              of the subtitle in % of the screen width.

       -noterm-osd
              Disable the display of OSD messages on the  console
              when no video output is available.

       -term-osd-esc <escape sequence>
              Specify  the  escape sequence to use before writing
              an OSD message on the console.  The escape sequence
              should  move  the  pointer  to the beginning of the
              line used  for  the  OSD  and  clear  it  (default:
              ^[[A\r^[[K).

       -unicode
              Tells  MPlayer  to handle the subtitle file as uni-
              code.

       -utf8
              Tells MPlayer to handle the subtitle file as UTF-8.

       -vobsub <VOBsub file without extension>
              Specify a VOBsub file to use for subtitles.  Has to
              be the full pathname without extension, i.e.  with-
              out the '.idx', '.ifo' or '.sub'.

       -vobsubid <0-31>
              Specify the VOBsub subtitle ID.




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AUDIO OUTPUT OPTIONS (MPLAYER ONLY)
       -abs <value> (-ao oss only) (OBSOLETE)
              Override  audio driver/:card buffer size detection.

       -format <format> (also see the format audio filter)
              Select the sample format used for output  from  the
              audio  filter  layer to the sound card.  The values
              that <format> can adopt are listed below in the de-
              scription of the format audio filter.

       -mixer <device>
              Use  a  mixer  device  different  from  the default
              /dev/:mixer.  For ALSA this is the mixer name.

       -mixer-channel <mixer line>[,mixer index] (-ao oss and
       -ao  alsa only)
              This option will tell MPlayer to  use  a  different
              channel  for  controlling  volume  than the default
              PCM.  Options for OSS include vol, pcm, line.   For
              a  complete  list  of  options  look  for SOUND_DE-
              VICE_NAMES  in   /usr/:include/:linux/:soundcard.h.
              For  ALSA you can use the names e.g. alsamixer dis-
              plays, like Master, Line, PCM.
              NOTE: ALSA mixer channel names followed by a number
              must be specified in the <name,number> format, i.e.
              a channel labeled 'PCM 1' in alsamixer must be con-
              verted to PCM,1.

       -softvol
              Force the use of the software mixer, instead of us-
              ing the sound card mixer.

       -softvol-max <10.0-10000.0>
              Set the maximum amplification level in percent (de-
              fault:  110).  A value of 200 will allow you to ad-
              just the volume up to a maximum of double the  cur-
              rent level.  With values below 100 the initial vol-
              ume (which is 100%)  will  be  above  the  maximum,
              which e.g. the OSD cannot display correctly.

       -volstep <0-100>
              Set  the  step size of mixer volume changes in per-
              cent of the whole range (default: 3).

AUDIO OUTPUT DRIVERS (MPLAYER ONLY)
       Audio output drivers are  interfaces  to  different  audio
       output facilities.  The syntax is:

       -ao <driver1[:suboption1[=value]:...],driver2,...[,]>
              Specify  a priority list of audio output drivers to
              be used.

       If the list has a trailing ',' MPlayer will fall  back  on
       drivers not contained in the list.  Suboptions are option-



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       al and can mostly be omitted.
       NOTE: See -ao help for a list of compiled-in audio  output
       drivers.

       EXAMPLE:
                 -ao alsa,oss,
                      Try  the  ALSA driver, then the OSS driver,
                      then others.
                 -ao alsa:noblock:device=hw=0.3
                      Sets noblock-mode and  the  device-name  as
                      first card, fourth device.

       Available audio output drivers are:

       alsa
              ALSA 0.9/1.x audio output driver
                 noblock
                      Sets noblock-mode.
                 device=<device>
                      Sets the device name.  Replace any ',' with
                      '.' and any ':' with '=' in the ALSA device
                      name.   For hwac3 output via S/PDIF, use an
                      "iec958" or "spdif" device, unless you  re-
                      ally know how to set it correctly.

       alsa5
              ALSA 0.5 audio output driver

       oss
              OSS audio output driver
                 <dsp-device>
                      Sets  the  audio  output  device  (default:
                      /dev/:dsp).
                 <mixer-device>
                      Sets  the  audio  mixer  device   (default:
                      /dev/:mixer).
                 <mixer-channel>
                      Sets  the  audio  mixer  channel  (default:
                      pcm).

       sdl (SDL only)
              highly platform independent SDL (Simple Directmedia
              Layer) library audio output driver
                 <driver>
                      Explicitly  choose  the SDL audio driver to
                      use (default: let SDL choose).

       arts
              audio output through the aRts daemon

       esd
              audio output through the ESD daemon
                 <server>
                      Explicitly choose the  ESD  server  to  use



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                      (default: localhost).

       jack
              audio  output  through  JACK (Jack Audio Connection
              Kit)
                 port=<name>
                      Connects to the ports with the  given  name
                      (default: physical ports).
                 name=<client
                      Client  name  that  is  passed to JACK (de-
                      fault: MPlayer  [<PID>]).   Useful  if  you
                      want  to  have  certain  connections estab-
                      lished automatically.
                 (no)estimate
                      Estimate the audio delay, supposed to  make
                      the  video  playback smoother (default: en-
                      abled).

       nas
              audio output through NAS

       macosx (Mac OS X only)
              native Mac OS X audio output driver

       openal Experimental, unfinished  (will  downmix  to  mono)
              OpenAL audio output driver

       sgi (SGI only)
              native SGI audio output driver
                 <output device name>
                      Explicitly choose the output device/:inter-
                      face to use (default: system-wide default).
                      For example, 'Analog Out' or 'Digital Out'.

       sun (Sun only)
              native Sun audio output driver
                 <device>
                      Explicitly choose the audio device  to  use
                      (default: /dev/:audio).

       win32 (Windows only)
              native Windows waveout audio output driver

       dsound (Windows only)
              DirectX DirectSound audio output driver
                 device=<devicenum>
                      Sets  the  device number to use.  Playing a
                      file with -v will show a list of  available
                      devices.

       dxr2 (also see -dxr2) (DXR2 only)
              Creative DXR2 specific output driver





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       ivtv (IVTV only)
              IVTV specific MPEG audio output driver.  Works with
              -ac hwmpa only.

       v4l2 (requires Linux 2.6.22+ kernel)
              Audio output driver for V4L2  cards  with  hardware
              MPEG decoder.

       mpegpes (DVB only)
              Audio  output  driver for DVB cards that writes the
              output to an MPEG-PES file if no DVB  card  is  in-
              stalled.
                 card=<1-4>
                      DVB  card  to  use if more than one card is
                      present.
                 file=<filename>
                      output filename

       null
              Produces no audio output but maintains video  play-
              back speed.  Use -nosound for benchmarking.

       pcm
              raw PCM/wave file writer audio output
                 (no)waveheader
                      Include  or  do not include the wave header
                      (default: included).   When  not  included,
                      raw PCM will be generated.
                 file=<filename>
                      Write  the  sound  to <filename> instead of
                      the default audiodump.wav.  If nowaveheader
                      is specified, the default is audiodump.pcm.
                 fast
                      Try to dump  faster  than  realtime.   Make
                      sure  the  output  does  not  get truncated
                      (usually with "Too many  video  packets  in
                      buffer"  message).   It  is normal that you
                      get a "Your system  is  too  SLOW  to  play
                      this!" message.

       plugin
              plugin audio output driver

VIDEO OUTPUT OPTIONS (MPLAYER ONLY)
       -adapter <value>
              Set  the graphics card that will receive the image.
              You can get a list of available cards when you  run
              this option with -v.  Currently only works with the
              directx video output driver.

       -bpp <depth>
              Override the autodetected color depth.   Only  sup-
              ported  by  the fbdev, dga, svga, vesa video output
              drivers.



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       -border
              Play movie  with  window  border  and  decorations.
              Since  this is on by default, use -noborder to dis-
              able the standard window decorations.  Supported by
              the directx video output driver.

       -brightness <-100-100>
              Adjust the brightness of the video signal (default:
              0).  Not supported by all video output drivers.

       -contrast <-100-100>
              Adjust the contrast of the video  signal  (default:
              0).  Not supported by all video output drivers.

       -display <name> (X11 only)
              Specify  the  hostname  and display number of the X
              server you want to display on.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -display xtest.localdomain:0

       -dr
              Turns on direct rendering  (not  supported  by  all
              codecs and video outputs)
              WARNING: May cause OSD/SUB corruption!

       -dxr2 <option1:option2:...>
              This  option is used to control the dxr2 video out-
              put driver.

                 ar-mode=<value>
                      aspect ratio mode (0 = normal, 1 = pan-and-
                      scan, 2 = letterbox (default))

                 iec958-encoded
                      Set iec958 output mode to encoded.

                 iec958-decoded
                      Set  iec958  output  mode  to  decoded (de-
                      fault).

                 macrovision=<value>
                      macrovision mode (0 = off  (default),  1  =
                      agc,  2 = agc 2 colorstripe, 3 = agc 4 col-
                      orstripe)

                 mute
                      mute sound output

                 unmute
                      unmute sound output

                 ucode=<value>
                      path to the microcode



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              TV output

                 75ire
                      enable 7.5 IRE output mode

                 no75ire
                      disable 7.5 IRE output mode (default)

                 bw
                      b/w TV output

                 color
                      color TV output (default)

                 interlaced
                      interlaced TV output (default)

                 nointerlaced
                      disable interlaced TV output

                 norm=<value>
                      TV norm (ntsc (default), pal, pal60,  palm,
                      paln, palnc)

                 square-pixel
                      set pixel mode to square

                 ccir601-pixel
                      set pixel mode to ccir601

              overlay

                 cr-left=<0-500>
                      Set  the left cropping value (default: 50).

                 cr-right=<0-500>
                      Set  the  right  cropping  value  (default:
                      300).

                 cr-top=<0-500>
                      Set the top cropping value (default: 0).

                 cr-bottom=<0-500>
                      Set the bottom cropping value (default: 0).

                 ck-[r|g|b]=<0-255>
                      Set the r(ed), g(reen) or  b(lue)  gain  of
                      the overlay color-key.

                 ck-[r|g|b]min=<0-255>
                      minimum value for the respective color key

                 ck-[r|g|b]max=<0-255>
                      maximum value for the respective color key



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                 ignore-cache
                      Ignore cached overlay settings.

                 update-cache
                      Update cached overlay settings.

                 ol-osd
                      Enable overlay onscreen display.

                 nool-osd
                      Disable overlay onscreen display (default).

                 ol[h|w|x|y]-cor=<-20-20>
                      Adjust the overlay size (h,w) and  position
                      (x,y)  in case it does not match the window
                      perfectly (default: 0).

                 overlay
                      Activate overlay (default).

                 nooverlay
                      Activate TVout.

                 overlay-ratio=<1-2500>
                      Tune the overlay (default: 1000).

       -fbmode <modename> (-vo fbdev only)
              Change video mode to the one  that  is  labeled  as
              <modename> in /etc/:fb.modes.
              NOTE: VESA framebuffer does not support mode chang-
              ing.

       -fbmodeconfig <filename> (-vo fbdev only)
              Override framebuffer mode configuration  file  (de-
              fault: /etc/:fb.modes).

       -fs (also see -zoom)
              Fullscreen  playback  (centers  movie,  and  paints
              black bands around it).  Not supported by all video
              output drivers.

       -fsmode-dontuse <0-31> (OBSOLETE, use the -fs option)
              Try  this option if you still experience fullscreen
              problems.

       -fstype <type1,type2,...> (X11 only)
              Specify a priority list of fullscreen modes  to  be
              used.   You  can negate the modes by prefixing them
              with '-'.  If  you  experience  problems  like  the
              fullscreen  window  being  covered by other windows
              try using a different order.
              NOTE: See -fstype help for a full list of available
              modes.




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              The available types are:

                 above
                      Use  the  _NETWM_STATE_ABOVE hint if avail-
                      able.
                 below
                      Use the _NETWM_STATE_BELOW hint  if  avail-
                      able.
                 fullscreen
                      Use  the  _NETWM_STATE_FULLSCREEN  hint  if
                      available.
                 layer
                      Use the _WIN_LAYER hint  with  the  default
                      layer.
                 layer=<0...15>
                      Use the _WIN_LAYER hint with the given lay-
                      er number.
                 netwm
                      Force NETWM style.
                 none
                      Do not set fullscreen window layer.
                 stays_on_top
                      Use   _NETWM_STATE_STAYS_ON_TOP   hint   if
                      available.

              EXAMPLE:
                 layer,stays_on_top,above,fullscreen
                      Default  order,  will be used as a fallback
                      if incorrect or unsupported modes are spec-
                      ified.
                 -fullscreen
                      Fixes  fullscreen switching on OpenBox 1.x.

       -geometry x[%][:y[%]] or [WxH][+x+y]
              Adjust where the output is on the screen initially.
              The  x  and y specifications are in pixels measured
              from the top-left of the screen to the top-left  of
              the  image being displayed, however if a percentage
              sign is given after the argument it turns the value
              into a percentage of the screen size in that direc-
              tion.  It also supports the standard X11  -geometry
              option  format.  If an external window is specified
              using the -wid option, then the x and y coordinates
              are  relative  to the top-left corner of the window
              rather than the screen.
              NOTE: This option is only supported by the x11, xm-
              ga,  xv,  xvmc, xvidix, gl, gl2, directx and tdfxfb
              video output drivers.

              EXAMPLE:
                 50:40
                      Places the window at x=50, y=40.
                 50%:50%
                      Places the window  in  the  middle  of  the



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                      screen.
                 100%
                      Places  the  window  at  the  middle of the
                      right edge of the screen.
                 100%:100%
                      Places the window at the bottom right  cor-
                      ner of the screen.

       -guiwid <window ID> (also see -wid) (GUI only)
              This  tells  the  GUI to also use an X11 window and
              stick itself to the bottom of the video,  which  is
              useful  to  embed a mini-GUI in a browser (with the
              MPlayer plugin for instance).

       -hue <-100-100>
              Adjust the hue of the video  signal  (default:  0).
              You  can  get  a colored negative of the image with
              this option.  Not supported  by  all  video  output
              drivers.

       -monitor-dotclock <range[,range,...]> (-vo fbdev and vesa
       only)
              Specify the dotclock or  pixelclock  range  of  the
              monitor.

       -monitor-hfreq <range[,range,...]> (-vo fbdev and vesa on-
       ly)
              Specify the horizontal frequency range of the moni-
              tor.

       -monitor-vfreq <range[,range,...]> (-vo fbdev and vesa on-
       ly)
              Specify the vertical frequency range of  the  moni-
              tor.

       -monitoraspect <ratio> (also see -aspect)
              Set  the aspect ratio of your monitor or TV screen.
              A value of 0 disables a previous setting  (e.g.  in
              the  config  file).   Overrides  the  -monitorpixe-
              laspect setting if enabled.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -monitoraspect 4:3  or 1.3333
                 -monitoraspect 16:9 or 1.7777

       -monitorpixelaspect <ratio> (also see -aspect)
              Set the aspect of a single pixel of your monitor or
              TV  screen (default: 1).  A value of 1 means square
              pixels (correct for (almost?) all LCDs).

       -nodouble
              Disables double  buffering,  mostly  for  debugging
              purposes.   Double buffering fixes flicker by stor-
              ing two frames in memory, and displaying one  while



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              decoding  another.   It  can affect OSD negatively,
              but often removes OSD flickering.

       -nograbpointer
              Do not grab the mouse pointer after  a  video  mode
              change (-vm).  Useful for multihead setups.

       -nokeepaspect
              Do  not keep window aspect ratio when resizing win-
              dows.  Only works with the x11, xv,  xmga,  xvidix,
              directx  video  output  drivers.  Furthermore under
              X11 your window manager has to honor window  aspect
              hints.

       -ontop
              Makes  the  player window stay on top of other win-
              dows.  Supported by video output drivers which  use
              X11,  except  SDL,  as  well  as  directx,  macosx,
              quartz, ggi and gl2.

       -panscan <0.0-1.0>
              Enables pan-and-scan  functionality  (cropping  the
              sides  of  e.g.  a  16:9 movie to make it fit a 4:3
              display without black bands).  The  range  controls
              how  much of the image is cropped.  Only works with
              the xv, xmga, mga,  gl,  gl2,  quartz,  macosx  and
              xvidix video output drivers.
              NOTE:  Values between -1 and 0 are allowed as well,
              but highly experimental and  may  crash  or  worse.
              Use at your own risk!

       -panscanrange <-19.0-99.0> (experimental)
              Change  the range of the pan-and-scan functionality
              (default: 1).  Positive values  mean  multiples  of
              the  default  range.  Negative numbers mean you can
              zoom in up to a factor  of  -panscanrange+1.   E.g.
              -panscanrange  -3  allows a zoom factor of up to 4.
              This feature is experimental.  Do not  report  bugs
              unless you are using -vo gl.

       -refreshrate <Hz>
              Set  the monitor refreshrate in Hz.  Currently only
              supported by -vo directx combined with the -vm  op-
              tion.

       -rootwin
              Play movie in the root window (desktop background).
              Desktop background images may cover the movie  win-
              dow,  though.   Only  works with the x11, xv, xmga,
              xvidix, quartz, macosx  and  directx  video  output
              drivers.

       -saturation <-100-100>
              Adjust the saturation of the video signal (default:



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              0).  You can get grayscale output with this option.
              Not supported by all video output drivers.

       -screenh <pixels>
              Specify  the  vertical  screen resolution for video
              output drivers which do not know the screen resolu-
              tion like fbdev, x11 and TVout.

       -screenw <pixels>
              Specify  the horizontal screen resolution for video
              output drivers which do not know the screen resolu-
              tion like fbdev, x11 and TVout.

       -stop-xscreensaver (X11 only)
              Turns  off  xscreensaver at startup and turns it on
              again on exit.

       -vm
              Try to change to a different video mode.  Supported
              by  the  dga, x11, xv, sdl and directx video output
              drivers.  If used with  the  directx  video  output
              driver   the  -screenw,  -screenh,  -bpp  and  -re-
              freshrate options can be used to set the  new  dis-
              play mode.

       -vsync
              Enables  VBI  for  the  vesa, dfbmga and svga video
              output drivers.

       -wid <window ID> (also see -guiwid) (X11, OpenGL and
       DirectX  on- ly)
              This tells MPlayer to attach to an existing window.
              Useful  to  embed  MPlayer  in  a browser (e.g. the
              plugger extension).

       -xineramascreen <-2-...> (X11 only)
              In Xinerama configurations (i.e. a  single  desktop
              that  spans  across  multiple displays) this option
              tells MPlayer which screen to display the movie on.
              A  value  of  -2  means fullscreen across the whole
              virtual display (in this case Xinerama  information
              is  completely ignored), -1 means fullscreen on the
              display the window currently is  on.   The  initial
              position  set  via the -geometry option is relative
              to the specified screen.  Will  usually  only  work
              with "-fstype -fullscreen" or "-fstype none".

       -zrbw (-vo zr only)
              Display  in  black  and white.  For optimal perfor-
              mance, this can be combined with '-lavdopts  gray'.

       -zrcrop <[width]x[height]+[x offset]+[y offset]> (-vo zr
       only)
              Select a part of the input image to display, multi-



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              ple  occurrences  of this option switch on cinerama
              mode.  In cinerama mode the  movie  is  distributed
              over more than one TV (or beamer) to create a larg-
              er image.  Options appearing after the n-th -zrcrop
              apply  to  the n-th MJPEG card, each card should at
              least have a -zrdev in  addition  to  the  -zrcrop.
              For  examples, see the output of -zrhelp and the Zr
              section of the documentation.

       -zrdev <device> (-vo zr only)
              Specify the device special  file  that  belongs  to
              your  MJPEG  card,  by  default the zr video output
              driver takes the first v4l device it can find.

       -zrfd (-vo zr only)
              Force  decimation:  Decimation,  as  specified   by
              -zrhdec  and  -zrvdec, only happens if the hardware
              scaler can stretch the image to its original  size.
              Use this option to force decimation.

       -zrhdec <1|2|4> (-vo zr only)
              Horizontal  decimation: Ask the driver to send only
              every 2nd or 4th line/:pixel of the input image  to
              the MJPEG card and use the scaler of the MJPEG card
              to stretch the image to its original size.

       -zrhelp (-vo zr only)
              Display a list of all -zr* options,  their  default
              values and a cinerama mode example.

       -zrnorm <norm> (-vo zr only)
              Specify  the  TV  norm  as PAL or NTSC (default: no
              change).

       -zrquality <1-20> (-vo zr only)
              A number from 1 (best) to 20  (worst)  representing
              the JPEG encoding quality.

       -zrvdec <1|2|4> (-vo zr only)
              Vertical  decimation:  Ask  the driver to send only
              every 2nd or 4th line/:pixel of the input image  to
              the MJPEG card and use the scaler of the MJPEG card
              to stretch the image to its original size.

       -zrxdoff <x display offset> (-vo zr only)
              If the movie is smaller than the  TV  screen,  this
              option  specifies  the x offset from the upper-left
              corner of the TV screen (default: centered).

       -zrydoff <y display offset> (-vo zr only)
              If the movie is smaller than the  TV  screen,  this
              option  specifies  the y offset from the upper-left
              corner of the TV screen (default: centered).




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VIDEO OUTPUT DRIVERS (MPLAYER ONLY)
       Video output drivers are  interfaces  to  different  video
       output facilities.  The syntax is:

       -vo <driver1[:suboption1[=value]:...],driver2,...[,]>
              Specify  a priority list of video output drivers to
              be used.

       If the list has a trailing ',' MPlayer will fall  back  on
       drivers not contained in the list.  Suboptions are option-
       al and can mostly be omitted.
       NOTE: See -vo help for a list of compiled-in video  output
       drivers.

       EXAMPLE:
                 -vo xmga,xv,
                      Try  the  Matrox  X11  driver,  then the Xv
                      driver, then others.
                 -vo directx:noaccel
                      Uses the DirectX driver  with  acceleration
                      features turned off.

       Available video output drivers are:

       xv (X11 only)
              Uses  the XVideo extension of XFree86 4.x to enable
              hardware accelerated playback.  If you cannot use a
              hardware specific driver, this is probably the best
              option.  For information  about  what  colorkey  is
              used and how it is drawn run MPlayer with -v option
              and look out for the lines tagged with [xv  common]
              at the beginning.
                 port=<number>
                      Select a specific XVideo port.
                 ck=<cur|use|set>
                      Select  the  source from which the colorkey
                      is taken (default: cur).
                         cur  The default takes the colorkey cur-
                              rently set in Xv.
                         use  Use  but  do  not  set the colorkey
                              from MPlayer (use -colorkey  option
                              to change it).
                         set  Same  as use but also sets the sup-
                              plied colorkey.
                 ck-method=<man|bg|auto>
                      Sets the colorkey drawing method  (default:
                      man).
                         man  Draw the colorkey manually (reduces
                              flicker in some cases).
                         bg   Set the colorkey  as  window  back-
                              ground.
                         auto Let Xv draw the colorkey.





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MPlayer(1)               The Movie Player              MPlayer(1)


       x11 (X11 only)
              Shared  memory video output driver without hardware
              acceleration that works whenever X11 is present.

       xover (X11 only)
              Adds X11 support to all overlay based video  output
              drivers.  Currently only supported by tdfx_vid.
                 <vo_driver>
                      Select the driver to use as source to over-
                      lay on top of X11.

       xvmc (X11 with -vc ffmpeg12mc only)
              Video output driver that uses the XvMC (X Video Mo-
              tion  Compensation)  extension  of  XFree86  4.x to
              speed up MPEG-1/2 and VCR2 decoding.
                 port=<number>
                      Select a specific XVideo port.
                 (no)benchmark
                      Disables  image  display.   Necessary   for
                      proper  benchmarking of drivers that change
                      image  buffers  on  monitor  retrace   only
                      (nVidia).   Default is not to disable image
                      display (nobenchmark).
                 (no)bobdeint
                      Very simple deinterlacer.  Might  not  look
                      better  than  -vf  tfields=1, but it is the
                      only deinterlacer for xvmc (default: nobob-
                      deint).
                 (no)queue
                      Queue frames for display to allow more par-
                      allel work of the video hardware.  May  add
                      a   small  (not  noticeable)  constant  A/V
                      desync (default: noqueue).
                 (no)sleep
                      Use sleep function while waiting  for  ren-
                      dering to finish (not recommended on Linux)
                      (default: nosleep).
                 ck=cur|use|set
                      Same as -vo xv:ck (see -vo xv).
                 ck-method=man|bg|auto
                      Same as -vo xv:ck-method (see -vo xv).

       dga (X11 only)
              Play video through the XFree86 Direct Graphics  Ac-
              cess extension.  Considered obsolete.

       sdl (SDL only)
              Highly platform independent SDL (Simple Directmedia
              Layer) library video output driver.  Since SDL uses
              its  own X11 layer, MPlayer X11 options do not have
              any effect on SDL.
                 driver=<driver>
                      Explicitly choose the SDL driver to use.




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                 (no)forcexv
                      Use XVideo through  the  sdl  video  output
                      driver (default: forcexv).
                 (no)hwaccel
                      Use  hardware  accelerated scaler (default:
                      hwaccel).

       vidix
              VIDIX (VIDeo Interface for *niX) is an interface to
              the video acceleration features of different graph-
              ics cards.  Very fast video output driver on  cards
              that support it.
                 <subdevice>
                      Explicitly choose the VIDIX subdevice driv-
                      er to use.  Available subdevice drivers are
                      cyberblade, mach64, mga_crtc2, mga, nvidia,
                      pm2,  pm3,  radeon,  rage128,  sis_vid  and
                      unichrome.

       xvidix (X11 only)
              X11 frontend for VIDIX
                 <subdevice>
                      same as vidix

       cvidix
              Generic  and  platform  independent VIDIX frontend,
              can even run in a text console with nVidia cards.
                 <subdevice>
                      same as vidix

       winvidix (Windows only)
              Windows frontend for VIDIX
                 <subdevice>
                      same as vidix

       directx (Windows only)
              Video output driver that uses  the  DirectX  inter-
              face.
                 noaccel
                      Turns  off hardware acceleration.  Try this
                      option if you have display problems.

       quartz (Mac OS X only)
              Mac OS X Quartz video output  driver.   Under  some
              circumstances,  it might be more efficient to force
              a packed YUV output  format,  with  e.g.  -vf  for-
              mat=yuy2.
                 device_id=<number>
                      Choose   the   display  device  to  use  in
                      fullscreen.
                 fs_res=<width>:<height>
                      Specify the fullscreen  resolution  (useful
                      on slow systems).




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MPlayer(1)               The Movie Player              MPlayer(1)


       macosx (Mac OS X 10.4 or 10.3.9 with QuickTime 7)
              Mac OS X CoreVideo video output driver
                 device_id=<number>
                      Choose   the   display  device  to  use  in
                      fullscreen.

       fbdev (Linux only)
              Uses the kernel framebuffer to play video.
                 <device>
                      Explicitly choose the fbdev device name  to
                      use  (e.g.  /dev/:fb0)  or  the name of the
                      VIDIX subdevice if the device  name  starts
                      with  'vidix'  (e.g. 'vidixsis_vid' for the
                      sis driver).

       fbdev2 (Linux only)
              Uses the kernel framebuffer to play video, alterna-
              tive implementation.
                 <device>
                      Explicitly  choose the fbdev device name to
                      use (default: /dev/:fb0).

       vesa
              Very general video output driver that  should  work
              on any VESA VBE 2.0 compatible card.
                 (no)dga
                      Turns DGA mode on or off (default: on).
                 neotv_pal
                      Activate  the NeoMagic TV out and set it to
                      PAL norm.
                 neotv_ntsc
                      Activate the NeoMagic TV out and set it  to
                      NTSC norm.
                 vidix
                      Use the VIDIX driver.
                 lvo:
                      Activate  the Linux Video Overlay on top of
                      VESA mode.

       svga
              Play video using the SVGA library.
                 <video mode>
                      Specify video mode to use.  The mode can be
                      given  in  a <width>x<height>x<colors> for-
                      mat, e.g. 640x480x16M or be a graphics mode
                      number, e.g. 84.
                 bbosd
                      Draw  OSD  into black bands below the movie
                      (slower).
                 native
                      Use only native  drawing  functions.   This
                      avoids  direct  rendering, OSD and hardware
                      acceleration.




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                 retrace
                      Force frame  switch  on  vertical  retrace.
                      Usable  only with -double.  It has the same
                      effect as the -vsync option.
                 sq
                      Try to select a video mode with square pix-
                      els.
                 vidix
                      Use svga with VIDIX.

       gl
              OpenGL  video output driver, simple version.  Video
              size must be smaller than the maximum texture  size
              of  your  OpenGL  implementation.  Intended to work
              even with the most  basic  OpenGL  implementations,
              but also makes use of newer extensions, which allow
              support for more colorspaces and direct  rendering.
              Please  use -dr if it works with your OpenGL imple-
              mentation, since for higher resolutions  this  pro-
              vides  a  big  speedup.  The code performs very few
              checks, so if a feature does not work,  this  might
              be  because it is not supported by your card/OpenGL
              implementation even if you do  not  get  any  error
              message.   Use glxinfo or a similar tool to display
              the supported OpenGL extensions.
                 (no)scaled-osd
                      Changes the way the OSD  behaves  when  the
                      size  of  the window changes (default: dis-
                      abled).  When enabled behaves more like the
                      other video output drivers, which is better
                      for fixed-size fonts.  Disabled looks  much
                      better  with  FreeType  fonts  and uses the
                      borders in fullscreen mode.  Does not  work
                      correctly  with  ass  subtitles (see -ass),
                      you can instead render them without  OpenGL
                      support via -vf ass.
                 osdcolor=<0xRRGGBB>
                      Color  for  OSD  (default: 0xffffff, corre-
                      sponds to white).
                 rectangle=<0,1,2>
                      Select usage of rectangular textures  which
                      saves  video  RAM, but often is slower (de-
                      fault: 0).
                         0: Use power-of-two textures  (default).
                         1:  Use the GL_ARB_texture_rectangle ex-
                         tension.
                         2:   Use   the   GL_ARB_texture_non_pow-
                         er_of_two extension.  In some cases only
                         supported  in  software  and  thus  very
                         slow.
                 swapinterval=<n>
                      Minimum  interval between two buffer swaps,
                      counted in displayed frames  (default:  1).
                      1  is  equivalent  to  enabling VSYNC, 0 to



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                      disabling VSYNC.  Values below 0 will leave
                      it  at the system default.  This limits the
                      framerate to (horizontal refresh rate / n).
                      Requires  GLX_SGI_swap_control  support  to
                      work.  With  some  (most/all?)  implementa-
                      tions this only works in fullscreen mode.
                 yuv=<n>
                      Select the type of YUV to RGB conversion.
                         0:  Use  software  conversion (default).
                         Compatible  with  all  OpenGL  versions.
                         Provides  brightness, contrast and satu-
                         ration control.
                         1: Use register combiners.  This uses an
                         nVidia-specific  extension (GL_NV_regis-
                         ter_combiners).  At least three  texture
                         units  are  needed.  Provides saturation
                         and hue control.  This  method  is  fast
                         but inexact.
                         2:  Use  a  fragment program.  Needs the
                         GL_ARB_fragment_program extension and at
                         least  three  texture  units.   Provides
                         brightness, contrast, saturation and hue
                         control.
                         3:  Use a fragment program using the POW
                         instruction.   Needs  the   GL_ARB_frag-
                         ment_program   extension  and  at  least
                         three texture units.   Provides  bright-
                         ness, contrast, saturation, hue and gam-
                         ma control.  Gamma can also be set inde-
                         pendently   for  red,  green  and  blue.
                         Method 4 is usually faster.
                         4: Use a fragment program with addition-
                         al   lookup.    Needs  the  GL_ARB_frag-
                         ment_program extension and at least four
                         texture   units.   Provides  brightness,
                         contrast, saturation, hue and gamma con-
                         trol.   Gamma  can  also be set indepen-
                         dently for red, green and blue.
                         5: Use ATI-specific  method  (for  older
                         cards).   This  uses an ATI-specific ex-
                         tension  (GL_ATI_fragment_shader  -  not
                         GL_ARB_fragment_shader!).     At   least
                         three texture units  are  needed.   Pro-
                         vides  saturation and hue control.  This
                         method is fast but inexact.
                         6: Use a 3D texture to do conversion via
                         lookup.   Needs the GL_ARB_fragment_pro-
                         gram extension and at least four texture
                         units.   Extremely slow (software emula-
                         tion) on some (all?) ATI cards since  it
                         uses a texture with border pixels.  Pro-
                         vides brightness, contrast,  saturation,
                         hue  and  gamma control.  Gamma can also
                         be set independently for red, green  and



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MPlayer(1)               The Movie Player              MPlayer(1)


                         blue.   Speed depends more on GPU memory
                         bandwidth than other methods.
                 lscale=<n>
                      Select the scaling function to use for  lu-
                      minance  scaling.  Only valid for yuv modes
                      2, 3, 4 and 6.
                         0:  Use  simple  linear  filtering  (de-
                         fault).
                         1:  Use bicubic filtering (better quali-
                         ty).  Needs one additional texture unit.
                         Older  cards  will not be able to handle
                         this for chroma at least  in  fullscreen
                         mode.
                         2:  Use  cubic  filtering in horizontal,
                         linear filtering in vertical  direction.
                         Works on a few more cards than method 1.
                 cscale=<n>
                      Select the  scaling  function  to  use  for
                      chrominance   scaling.    For  details  see
                      lscale.
                 customprog=<filename>
                      Load a custom fragment program from  <file-
                      name>.   See TOOLS/edgedect.fp for an exam-
                      ple.
                 customtex=<filename>
                      Load a custom  "gamma  ramp"  texture  from
                      <filename>.   This  can be used in combina-
                      tion with yuv=4 or with the customprog  op-
                      tion.
                 (no)customtlin
                      If enabled (default) use GL_LINEAR interpo-
                      lation, otherwise use GL_NEAREST  for  cus-
                      tomtex texture.
                 (no)customtrect
                      If  enabled, use texture_rectangle for cus-
                      tomtex texture.  Default is disabled.

              Normally there is no reason to  use  the  following
              options, they mostly exist for testing purposes.

                 (no)glfinish
                      Call  glFinish()  before  swapping buffers.
                      Slower but in some cases more correct  out-
                      put (default: disabled).
                 (no)manyfmts
                      Enables support for more (RGB and BGR) col-
                      or  formats  (default:   enabled).    Needs
                      OpenGL version >= 1.2.
                 slice-height=<0-...>
                      Number  of  lines  copied to texture in one
                      piece (default: 0).  0 for whole image.
                      NOTE: If YUV colorspace is  used  (see  yuv
                      suboption), special rules apply:
                         If the decoder uses slice rendering (see



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MPlayer(1)               The Movie Player              MPlayer(1)


                         -noslices), this setting has no  effect,
                         the  size  of  the slices as provided by
                         the decoder is used.
                         If the decoder does not use  slice  ren-
                         dering, the default is 16.
                 (no)osd
                      Enable or disable support for OSD rendering
                      via OpenGL (default: enabled).  This option
                      is for testing; to disable the OSD use -os-
                      dlevel 0 instead.
                 (no)aspect
                      Enable or disable aspect scaling  and  pan-
                      and-scan  support (default: enabled).  Dis-
                      abling might increase speed.

       gl2
              OpenGL  video  output  driver,  second  generation.
              Supports  OSD  and  videos  larger than the maximum
              texture size.
                 (no)glfinish
                      same as gl (default: enabled)
                 yuv=<n>
                      Select the type of YUV to  RGB  conversion.
                      If  set  to  anything  except 0 OSD will be
                      disabled and brightness, contrast and gamma
                      setting  is only available via the global X
                      server settings.  Apart from this the  val-
                      ues have the same meaning as for -vo gl.

       null
              Produces no video output.  Useful for benchmarking.

       aa
              ASCII art video output driver that works on a  text
              console.   You can get a list and an explanation of
              available suboptions executing mplayer -vo aa:help
              NOTE: Driver does not not handle -aspect correctly.
              HINT:  You  probably  have to specify -monitorpixe-
              laspect. Try  mplayer  -vo  aa  -monitorpixelaspect
              0.5.

       caca
              Color ASCII art video output driver that works on a
              text console.

       bl
              Video playback using the Blinkenlights  UDP  proto-
              col.  This driver is highly hardware specific.
                 <subdevice>
                      Explicitly  choose the Blinkenlights subde-
                      vice driver to use.  It is  something  like
                      arcade:host=localhost:2323               or
                      hdl:file=name1,file=name2.  You must speci-
                      fy a subdevice.



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       ggi
              GGI graphics system video output driver
                 <driver>
                      Explicitly  choose  the  GGI driver to use.
                      Replace any ',' that would  appear  in  the
                      driver string by a '.'.

       directfb
              Play video using the DirectFB library.
                 (no)input
                      Use  the  DirectFB  instead  of the MPlayer
                      keyboard code (default: enabled).
                 buffermode=single|double|triple
                      Double and triple buffering give  best  re-
                      sults  if you want to avoid tearing issues.
                      Triple buffering  is  more  efficient  than
                      double  buffering  as  it  does  not  block
                      MPlayer while waiting for the vertical  re-
                      trace.   Single buffering should be avoided
                      (default: single).
                 fieldparity=top|bottom
                      Control the  output  order  for  interlaced
                      frames  (default:  disabled).  Valid values
                      are top = top fields first, bottom = bottom
                      fields  first.   This  option does not have
                      any effect  on  progressive  film  material
                      like most MPEG movies are.  You need to en-
                      able this option if you have tearing issues
                      or  unsmooth  motions  watching  interlaced
                      film material.
                 layer=N
                      Will force layer with  ID  N  for  playback
                      (default: -1 - auto).
                 dfbopts=<list>
                      Specify a parameter list for DirectFB.

       dfbmga
              Matrox G400/:G450/:G550 specific video output driv-
              er that uses the DirectFB library to  make  use  of
              special  hardware  features.  Enables CRTC2 (second
              head), displaying video independently of the  first
              head.
                 (no)input
                      same as directfb (default: disabled)
                 buffermode=single|double|triple
                      same as directfb (default: triple)
                 fieldparity=top|bottom
                      same as directfb
                 (no)bes
                      Enable  the  use of the Matrox BES (backend
                      scaler) (default:  disabled).   Gives  very
                      good  results  concerning  speed and output
                      quality as interpolated picture  processing
                      is  done  in  hardware.   Works only on the



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                      primary head.
                 (no)spic
                      Make use of the Matrox sub picture layer to
                      display the OSD (default: enabled).
                 (no)crtc2
                      Turn on TV-out on the second head (default:
                      enabled).  The output quality is amazing as
                      it is a full interlaced picture with proper
                      sync to every odd/:even field.
                 tvnorm=pal|ntsc|auto
                      Will set the TV norm  of  the  Matrox  card
                      without  the  need  for modifying /etc/:di-
                      rectfbrc (default: disabled).  Valid  norms
                      are  pal  = PAL, ntsc = NTSC.  Special norm
                      is auto (auto-adjust using  PAL/:NTSC)  be-
                      cause it decides which norm to use by look-
                      ing at the framerate of the movie.

       mga (Linux only)
              Matrox specific video output driver that makes  use
              of  the YUV back end scaler on Gxxx cards through a
              kernel module.  If you have a Matrox card, this  is
              the fastest option.
                 <device>
                      Explicitly choose the Matrox device name to
                      use (default: /dev/:mga_vid).

       xmga (Linux, X11 only)
              The mga video output driver, running in an X11 win-
              dow.
                 <device>
                      Explicitly choose the Matrox device name to
                      use (default: /dev/:mga_vid).

       s3fb (Linux only) (see also -vf yuv2 and -dr)
              S3 Virge specific video output driver.  This driver
              supports  the  card's  YUV  conversion and scaling,
              double buffering  and  direct  rendering  features.
              Use  -vf yuy2 to get hardware-accelerated YUY2 ren-
              dering, which is much  faster  than  YV12  on  this
              card.
                 <device>
                      Explicitly  choose the fbdev device name to
                      use (default: /dev/:fb0).

       3dfx (Linux only)
              3dfx-specific video output driver that directly us-
              es  the  hardware  on  top of X11.  Only 16 bpp are
              supported.

       tdfxfb (Linux only)
              This driver employs the tdfxfb  framebuffer  driver
              to play movies with YUV acceleration on 3dfx cards.




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                 <device>
                      Explicitly choose the fbdev device name  to
                      use (default: /dev/:fb0).

       tdfx_vid (Linux only)
              3dfx-specific  video  output  driver  that works in
              combination with the tdfx_vid kernel module.
                 <device>
                      Explicitly choose the device  name  to  use
                      (default: /dev/:tdfx_vid).

       dxr2 (also see -dxr2) (DXR2 only)
              Creative DXR2 specific video output driver.
                 <vo_driver>
                      Output  video  subdriver  to use as overlay
                      (x11, xv).

       dxr3 (DXR3 only)
              Sigma Designs em8300 MPEG  decoder  chip  (Creative
              DXR3,  Sigma Designs Hollywood Plus) specific video
              output driver.  Also see the lavc video filter.
                 overlay
                      Activates the overlay instead of TVOut.
                 prebuf
                      Turns on prebuffering.
                 sync
                      Will turn on the new sync-engine.
                 norm=<norm>
                      Specifies the TV norm.
                         0: Does not  change  current  norm  (de-
                         fault).
                         1: Auto-adjust using PAL/:NTSC.
                         2: Auto-adjust using PAL/:PAL-60.
                         3: PAL
                         4: PAL-60
                         5: NTSC

                 <0-3>
                      Specifies  the  device number to use if you
                      have more than one em8300 card.

       ivtv (IVTV only)
              Conexant CX23415 (iCompression iTVC15) or  Conexant
              CX23416  (iCompression  iTVC16)  MPEG  decoder chip
              (Hauppauge  WinTV   PVR-150/250/350/500)   specific
              video  output driver for TV-Out.  Also see the lavc
              video filter.
                 device
                      Explicitly choose the MPEG  decoder  device
                      name to use (default: /dev/video16).
                 output
                      Explicitly  choose  the TV-Out output to be
                      used for the video signal.




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       v4l2 (requires Linux 2.6.22+ kernel)
              Video output driver for V4L2 compliant  cards  with
              built-in  hardware MPEG decoder.  Also see the lavc
              video filter.
                 device
                      Explicitly choose the MPEG  decoder  device
                      name to use (default: /dev/video16).
                 output
                      Explicitly  choose  the TV-Out output to be
                      used for the video signal.

       mpegpes (DVB only)
              Video output driver for DVB cards that  writes  the
              output  to  an  MPEG-PES file if no DVB card is in-
              stalled.
                 card=<1-4>
                      Specifies the device number to use  if  you
                      have  more than one DVB output card (V3 API
                      only, such as 1.x.y series drivers).
                 <filename>
                      output filename (default: ./grab.mpg)

       zr (also see -zr* and -zrhelp)
              Video output driver for  a  number  of  MJPEG  cap-
              ture/:playback cards.

       zr2 (also see the zrmjpeg video filter)
              Video  output  driver  for  a  number of MJPEG cap-
              ture/:playback cards, second generation.
                 dev=<device>
                      Specifies the video device to use.
                 norm=<PAL|NTSC|SECAM|auto>
                      Specifies the video norm to  use  (default:
                      auto).
                 (no)prebuf
                      (De)Activate prebuffering, not yet support-
                      ed.

       md5sum
              Calculate MD5 sums of each frame and write them  to
              a file.  Supports RGB24 and YV12 colorspaces.  Use-
              ful for debugging.
                 outfile=<value>
                      Specify  the  output   filename   (default:
                      ./md5sums).

       yuv4mpeg
              Transforms  the video stream into a sequence of un-
              compressed YUV 4:2:0 images and stores it in a file
              (default: ./stream.yuv).  The format is the same as
              the one employed by mjpegtools, so this  is  useful
              if  you  want  to process the video with the mjpeg-
              tools suite.  It supports the YV12,  RGB  (24  bpp)
              and  BGR  (24 bpp) format.  You can combine it with



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              the -fixed-vo option to concatenate files with  the
              same dimensions and fps value.
                 interlaced
                      Write  the output as interlaced frames, top
                      field first.
                 interlaced_bf
                      Write the output as interlaced frames, bot-
                      tom field first.
                 file=<filename>
                      Write  the  output to <filename> instead of
                      the default stream.yuv.

              NOTE: If you do not specify any option  the  output
              is progressive (i.e. not interlaced).

       gif89a
              Output  each  frame into a single animated GIF file
              in the current directory.   It  supports  only  RGB
              format  with  24 bpp and the output is converted to
              256 colors.
                 <fps>
                      Float value to specify framerate  (default:
                      5.0).
                 <output>
                      Specify   the   output  filename  (default:
                      ./out.gif).

              NOTE: You must specify  the  framerate  before  the
              filename or the framerate will be part of the file-
              name.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer   video.nut    -vo    gif89a:fps=15:out-
                 put=test.gif

       jpeg
              Output  each  frame into a JPEG file in the current
              directory.  Each file takes the frame number padded
              with leading zeros as name.
                 [no]progressive
                      Specify  standard  or progressive JPEG (de-
                      fault: noprogressive).
                 [no]baseline
                      Specify use of baseline  or  not  (default:
                      baseline).
                 optimize=<0-100>
                      optimization factor (default: 100)
                 smooth=<0-100>
                      smooth factor (default: 0)
                 quality=<0-100>
                      quality factor (default: 75)
                 outdir=<dirname>
                      Specify  the  directory  to  save  the JPEG
                      files to (default: ./).



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                 subdirs=<prefix>
                      Create  numbered  subdirectories  with  the
                      specified  prefix  to save the files in in-
                      stead of the current directory.
                 maxfiles=<value> (subdirs only)
                      Maximum number of files  to  be  saved  per
                      subdirectory.   Must  be equal to or larger
                      than 1 (default: 1000).

       pnm
              Output each frame into a PNM file  in  the  current
              directory.  Each file takes the frame number padded
              with leading zeros as name.  It supports  PPM,  PGM
              and  PGMYUV files in both raw and ASCII mode.  Also
              see pnm(5), ppm(5) and pgm(5).
                 ppm
                      Write PPM files (default).
                 pgm
                      Write PGM files.
                 pgmyuv
                      Write PGMYUV files.  PGMYUV  is  like  PGM,
                      but it also contains the U and V plane, ap-
                      pended at the bottom of the picture.
                 raw
                      Write PNM files in raw mode (default).
                 ascii
                      Write PNM files in ASCII mode.
                 outdir=<dirname>
                      Specify the directory to save the PNM files
                      to (default: ./).
                 subdirs=<prefix>
                      Create  numbered  subdirectories  with  the
                      specified prefix to save the files  in  in-
                      stead of the current directory.
                 maxfiles=<value> (subdirs only)
                      Maximum  number  of  files  to be saved per
                      subdirectory.  Must be equal to  or  larger
                      than 1 (default: 1000).

       png
              Output  each  frame  into a PNG file in the current
              directory.  Each file takes the frame number padded
              with leading zeros as name.  24bpp RGB and BGR for-
              mats are supported.
                 z=<0-9>
                      Specifies the compression level.  0  is  no
                      compression, 9 is maximum compression.

       tga
              Output  each frame into a Targa file in the current
              directory.  Each file takes the frame number padded
              with  leading  zeros  as name.  The purpose of this
              video output driver is to have  a  simple  lossless
              image  writer  to use without any external library.



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              It supports the BGR[A] color format,  with  15,  24
              and 32 bpp.  You can force a particular format with
              the format video filter.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer video.nut -vf format=bgr15 -vo tga

DECODING/FILTERING OPTIONS
       -ac <[-|+]codec1,[-|+]codec2,...[,]>
              Specify a priority list of audio codecs to be used,
              according  to their codec name in codecs.conf.  Use
              a '-' before the codec name to omit it.  Use a  '+'
              before the codec name to force it, this will likely
              crash!  If the list has a trailing ',' MPlayer will
              fall back on codecs not contained in the list.
              NOTE:  See  -ac  help  for a full list of available
              codecs.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -ac mp3acm
                      Force the l3codeca.acm MP3 codec.
                 -ac mad,
                      Try libmad first, then fall back on others.
                 -ac hwac3,a52,
                      Try  hardware  AC-3  passthrough,  software
                      AC-3, then others.
                 -ac hwdts,
                      Try hardware  DTS  passthrough,  then  fall
                      back on others.
                 -ac -ffmp3,
                      Skip FFmpeg's MP3 decoder.

       -af-adv <force=(0-7):list=(filters)> (also see -af)
              Specify advanced audio filter options:

                 force=<0-7>
                      Forces  the  insertion  of audio filters to
                      one of the following:
                         0: Use completely automatic  filter  in-
                         sertion.
                         1: Optimize for accuracy (default).
                         2:  Optimize  for  speed.  Warning: Some
                         features  in  the  audio   filters   may
                         silently fail, and the sound quality may
                         drop.
                         3: Use no automatic insertion of filters
                         and no optimization.  Warning: It may be
                         possible to  crash  MPlayer  using  this
                         setting.
                         4:  Use  automatic  insertion of filters
                         according to 0 above, but  use  floating
                         point processing when possible.
                         5:  Use  automatic  insertion of filters
                         according to 1 above, but  use  floating



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                         point processing when possible.
                         6:  Use  automatic  insertion of filters
                         according to 2 above, but  use  floating
                         point processing when possible.
                         7: Use no automatic insertion of filters
                         according to 3 above, and  use  floating
                         point processing when possible.

                 list=<filters>
                      Same as -af.

       -afm <driver1,driver2,...>
              Specify  a priority list of audio codec families to
              be  used,  according  to  their   codec   name   in
              codecs.conf.   Falls  back on the default codecs if
              none of the given codec families work.
              NOTE: See -afm help for a full  list  of  available
              codec families.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -afm ffmpeg
                      Try FFmpeg's libavcodec codecs first.
                 -afm acm,dshow
                      Try Win32 codecs first.

       -aspect <ratio> (also see -zoom)
              Override  movie aspect ratio, in case aspect infor-
              mation is incorrect or missing in  the  file  being
              played.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -aspect 4:3  or -aspect 1.3333
                 -aspect 16:9 or -aspect 1.7777

       -noaspect
              Disable  automatic movie aspect ratio compensation.

       -field-dominance <-1-1>
              Set first field for interlaced content.  Useful for
              deinterlacers   that   double  the  framerate:  -vf
              tfields=1, -vf yadif=1 and -vo xvmc:bobdeint.
                 -1   auto (default): If the decoder does not ex-
                      port  the appropriate information, it falls
                      back to 0 (top field first).
                 0    top field first
                 1    bottom field first

       -flip
              Flip image upside-down.

       -lavdopts <option1:option2:...> (DEBUG CODE)
              Specify libavcodec decoding  parameters.   Separate
              multiple options with a colon.




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              EXAMPLE:
                 -lavdopts gray:skiploopfilter=all:skipframe=non-
                 ref

              Available options are:

                 bitexact
                      Only use bit-exact algorithms in all decod-
                      ing steps (for codec testing).

                 bug=<value>
                      Manually work around encoder bugs.
                         0: nothing
                         1: autodetect bugs (default)
                         2  (msmpeg4v3):  some old lavc generated
                         msmpeg4v3 files (no autodetection)
                         4 (mpeg4): Xvid interlacing bug (autode-
                         tected if fourcc==XVIX)
                         8  (mpeg4):  UMP4 (autodetected if four-
                         cc==UMP4)
                         16 (mpeg4): padding bug (autodetected)
                         32 (mpeg4): illegal vlc bug (autodetect-
                         ed per fourcc)
                         64  (mpeg4): Xvid and DivX qpel bug (au-
                         todetected per fourcc/:version)
                         128 (mpeg4): old standard qpel  (autode-
                         tected per fourcc/:version)
                         256  (mpeg4):  another qpel bug (autode-
                         tected per fourcc/:version)
                         512 (mpeg4):  direct-qpel-blocksize  bug
                         (autodetected per fourcc/:version)
                         1024  (mpeg4): edge padding bug (autode-
                         tected per fourcc/:version)

                 debug=<value>
                      Display debugging information.
                         0: disabled
                         1: picture info
                         2: rate control
                         4: bitstream
                         8: macroblock (MB) type
                         16:  per-block  quantization   parameter
                         (QP)
                         32: motion vector
                         0x0040: motion vector visualization (use
                         -noslices)
                         0x0080: macroblock (MB) skip
                         0x0100: startcode
                         0x0200: PTS
                         0x0400: error resilience
                         0x0800: memory management control opera-
                         tions (H.264)
                         0x1000: bugs
                         0x2000: Visualize quantization parameter



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                         (QP), lower QP are tinted greener.
                         0x4000: Visualize block types.

                 ec=<value>
                      Set error concealment strategy.
                         1: Use strong deblock filter for damaged
                         MBs.
                         2:  iterative  motion vector (MV) search
                         (slow)
                         3: all (default)

                 er=<value>
                      Set error resilience strategy.
                         0: disabled
                         1: careful (Should work with broken  en-
                         coders.)
                         2:  normal (default) (Works with compli-
                         ant encoders.)
                         3: aggressive (More  checks,  but  might
                         cause   problems  even  for  valid  bit-
                         streams.)
                         4: very aggressive

                 fast (MPEG-2, MPEG-4, and H.264 only)
                      Enable optimizations which do not comply to
                      the  specification  and  might  potentially
                      cause problems,  like  simpler  dequantiza-
                      tion, simpler motion compensation, assuming
                      use of the default quantization matrix, as-
                      suming  YUV 4:2:0 and skipping a few checks
                      to detect damaged bitstreams.

                 gray
                      grayscale only decoding (a bit faster  than
                      with color)

                 idct=<0-99> (see -lavcopts)
                      For best decoding quality use the same IDCT
                      algorithm for decoding and encoding.   This
                      may come at a price in accuracy, though.

                 lowres=<number>[,<w>]
                      Decode  at  lower resolutions.  Low resolu-
                      tion  decoding  is  not  supported  by  all
                      codecs,  and  it  will often result in ugly
                      artifacts.  This is not a bug, but  a  side
                      effect  of not decoding at full resolution.
                         0: disabled
                         1: 1/2 resolution
                         2: 1/4 resolution
                         3: 1/8 resolution
                      If <w> is specified lowres decoding will be
                      used  only if the width of the video is ma-
                      jor than or equal to <w>.



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                 sb=<number> (MPEG-2 only)
                      Skip the given number of macroblock rows at
                      the bottom.

                 st=<number> (MPEG-2 only)
                      Skip the given number of macroblock rows at
                      the top.

                 skiploopfilter=<skipvalue> (H.264 only)
                      Skips the loop filter (AKA deblocking) dur-
                      ing  H.264  decoding.   Since  the filtered
                      frame is supposed to be used  as  reference
                      for  decoding  dependent  frames this has a
                      worse effect on quality than not doing  de-
                      blocking  on  e.g.  MPEG-2  video.   But at
                      least for high bitrate HDTV this provides a
                      big speedup with no visible quality loss.

                      <skipvalue>  can  be either one of the fol-
                      lowing:
                         none: Never skip.
                         default: Skip useless  processing  steps
                         (e.g. 0 size packets in AVI).
                         nonref:  Skip frames that are not refer-
                         enced (i.e. not used for decoding  other
                         frames, the error cannot "build up").
                         bidir: Skip B-Frames.
                         nonkey:    Skip    all   frames   except
                         keyframes.
                         all: Skip all frames.

                 skipidct=<skipvalue> (MPEG-1/2 only)
                      Skips the IDCT step.  This degrades quality
                      a lot of in almost all cases (see skiploop-
                      filter for available skip values).

                 skipframe=<skipvalue>
                      Skips decoding of frames  completely.   Big
                      speedup, but jerky motion and sometimes bad
                      artifacts (see skiploopfilter for available
                      skip values).

                 threads=<1-8> (MPEG-1/2 only)
                      number  of threads to use for decoding (de-
                      fault: 1)

                 vismv=<value>
                      Visualize motion vectors.
                         0: disabled
                         1: Visualize forward predicted MVs of P-
                         frames.
                         2: Visualize forward predicted MVs of B-
                         frames.
                         4: Visualize backward predicted  MVs  of



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                         B-frames.

                 vstats
                      Prints  some  statistics and stores them in
                      ./vstats_*.log.

       -noslices
              Disable   drawing   video   by   16-pixel    height
              slices/:bands,  instead  draws the whole frame in a
              single run.  May be faster or slower, depending  on
              video card and available cache.  It has effect only
              with libmpeg2 and libavcodec codecs.

       -nosound
              Do not play/:encode sound.  Useful  for  benchmark-
              ing.

       -novideo
              Do not play/:encode video.  In many cases this will
              not work, use -vc null -vo null instead.

       -pp <quality> (also see -vf pp)
              Set the DLL postprocess level.  This option  is  no
              longer  usable  with  -vf  pp.   It only works with
              Win32 DirectShow DLLs with internal  postprocessing
              routines.   The valid range of -pp values varies by
              codec, it is mostly 0-6, where  0=disable,  6=slow-
              est/:best.

       -pphelp (also see -vf pp)
              Show a summary about the available postprocess fil-
              ters and their usage.

       -ssf <mode>
              Specifies software scaler parameters.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -vf scale -ssf lgb=3.0
                 lgb=<0-100>
                      gaussian blur filter (luma)
                 cgb=<0-100>
                      gaussian blur filter (chroma)
                 ls=<-100-100>
                      sharpen filter (luma)
                 cs=<-100-100>
                      sharpen filter (chroma)
                 chs=<h>
                      chroma horizontal shifting
                 cvs=<v>
                      chroma vertical shifting

       -stereo <mode>
              Select type of MP2/:MP3 stereo output.
                 0    stereo



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                 1    left channel
                 2    right channel

       -sws <software scaler type> (also see -vf scale and -zoom)
              Specify  the  software  scaler algorithm to be used
              with the -zoom option.  This affects  video  output
              drivers which lack hardware acceleration, e.g. x11.

              Available types are:

                 0    fast bilinear
                 1    bilinear
                 2    bicubic (good quality) (default)
                 3    experimental
                 4    nearest neighbor (bad quality)
                 5    area
                 6    luma bicubic / chroma bilinear
                 7    gauss
                 8    sincR
                 9    lanczos
                 10   natural bicubic spline

              NOTE: Some -sws options are tunable.  The  descrip-
              tion of the scale video filter has further informa-
              tion.

       -vc <[-|+]codec1,[-|+]codec2,...[,]>
              Specify a priority list of video codecs to be used,
              according  to their codec name in codecs.conf.  Use
              a '-' before the codec name to omit it.  Use a  '+'
              before the codec name to force it, this will likely
              crash!  If the list has a trailing ',' MPlayer will
              fall back on codecs not contained in the list.
              NOTE:  See  -vc  help  for a full list of available
              codecs.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -vc divx
                      Force Win32/:VfW DivX codec, no fallback.
                 -vc -divxds,-divx,
                      Skip Win32 DivX codecs.
                 -vc ffmpeg12,mpeg12,
                      Try libavcodec's MPEG-1/2 codec, then libm-
                      peg2, then others.

       -vfm <driver1,driver2,...>
              Specify  a priority list of video codec families to
              be used, according to their names  in  codecs.conf.
              Falls  back  on  the  default codecs if none of the
              given codec families work.
              NOTE: See -vfm help for a full  list  of  available
              codec families.

              EXAMPLE:



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                 -vfm ffmpeg,dshow,vfw
                      Try  the  libavcodec, then Directshow, then
                      VfW codecs and fall back on others, if they
                      do not work.
                 -vfm xanim
                      Try XAnim codecs first.

       -x <x> (also see -zoom) (MPlayer only)
              Scale  image  to  width  <x> (if software/:hardware
              scaling is available).   Disables  aspect  calcula-
              tions.

       -xvidopts <option1:option2:...>
              Specify  additional  parameters  when decoding with
              Xvid.
              NOTE: Since libavcodec  is  faster  than  Xvid  you
              might  want  to  use  the libavcodec postprocessing
              filter (-vf pp) and decoder (-vfm ffmpeg)  instead.

              Xvid's internal postprocessing filters:
                 deblock-chroma (also see -vf pp)
                      chroma deblock filter
                 deblock-luma (also see -vf pp)
                      luma deblock filter
                 dering-luma (also see -vf pp)
                      luma deringing filter
                 dering-chroma (also see -vf pp)
                      chroma deringing filter
                 filmeffect (also see -vf noise)
                      Adds  artificial  film  grain to the video.
                      May increase perceived quality, while  low-
                      ering true quality.

              rendering methods:
                 dr2
                      Activate direct rendering method 2.
                 nodr2
                      Deactivate direct rendering method 2.

       -xy <value> (also see -zoom)
                 value<=8
                      Scale image by factor <value>.
                 value>8
                      Set  width to value and calculate height to
                      keep correct aspect ratio.

       -y <y> (also see -zoom) (MPlayer only)
              Scale image to height  <y>  (if  software/:hardware
              scaling  is  available).   Disables aspect calcula-
              tions.

       -zoom
              Allow software scaling, where available.  This will
              allow scaling with output drivers (like x11, fbdev)



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              that do not support hardware scaling where  MPlayer
              disables  scaling  by  default for performance rea-
              sons.

AUDIO FILTERS
       Audio filters allow you to modify the audio stream and its
       properties.  The syntax is:

       -af <filter1[=parameter1:parameter2:...],filter2,...>
              Setup a chain of audio filters.

       NOTE:  To  get a full list of available audio filters, see
       -af help.

       Available filters are:

       resample[=srate[:sloppy[:type]]]
              Changes the sample rate of the audio  stream.   Can
              be used if you have a fixed frequency sound card or
              if you are stuck with an old sound card that is on-
              ly capable of max 44.1kHz.  This filter is automat-
              ically enabled  if  necessary.   It  only  supports
              16-bit integer and float in native-endian format as
              input.
              NOTE: With MEncoder, you need to  also  use  -srate
              <srate>.
                 <srate>
                      output  sample  frequency in Hz.  The valid
                      range for this parameter is 8000 to 192000.
                      If  the  input  and output sample frequency
                      are the same or if this parameter is  omit-
                      ted  the  filter is automatically unloaded.
                      A high sample frequency  normally  improves
                      the  audio quality, especially when used in
                      combination with other filters.
                 <sloppy>
                      Allow (1) or disallow (0) the  output  fre-
                      quency to differ slightly from the frequen-
                      cy given by <srate> (default: 1).   Can  be
                      used  if the startup of the playback is ex-
                      tremely slow.
                 <type>
                      Selects which resampling method to use.
                         0:  linear  interpolation  (fast,   poor
                         quality especially when upsampling)
                         1: polyphase filterbank and integer pro-
                         cessing
                         2:  polyphase  filterbank  and  floating
                         point processing (slow, best quality)

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer -af resample=44100:0:0
                      would  set  the output frequency of the re-
                      sample filter to 44100Hz using exact output



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                      frequency scaling and linear interpolation.

       lavcresample[=srate[:length[:linear[:count[:cutoff]]]]]
              Changes the sample rate of the audio stream  to  an
              integer <srate> in Hz.  It only supports the 16-bit
              native-endian format.
              NOTE: With MEncoder, you need to  also  use  -srate
              <srate>.
                 <srate>
                      the output sample rate
                 <length>
                      length  of  the  filter with respect to the
                      lower sampling rate (default: 16)
                 <linear>
                      if 1 then filters will be linearly interpo-
                      lated between polyphase entries
                 <count>
                      log2  of  the  number  of polyphase entries
                      (..., 10->1024,  11->2048,  12->4096,  ...)
                      (default: 10->1024)
                 <cutoff>
                      cutoff frequency (0.0-1.0), default set de-
                      pending upon filter length

       sweep[=speed]
              Produces a sine sweep.
                 <0.0-1.0>
                      Sine function delta, use very low values to
                      hear the sweep.

       sinesuppress[=freq:decay]
              Remove  a  sine at the specified frequency.  Useful
              to get rid of the 50/60Hz noise on low quality  au-
              dio  equipment.  It probably only works on mono in-
              put.
                 <freq>
                      The frequency of the sine which  should  be
                      removed (in Hz) (default: 50)
                 <decay>
                      Controls  the  adaptivity  (a  larger value
                      will make the filter adapt to amplitude and
                      phase changes quicker, a smaller value will
                      make  the  adaptation   slower)   (default:
                      0.0001).    Reasonable  values  are  around
                      0.001.

       hrtf[=flag]
              Head-related transfer function: Converts multichan-
              nel  audio to 2 channel output for headphones, pre-
              serving the spatiality of the sound.

              Flag  Meaning
              m     matrix decoding of the rear channel




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              s     2-channel matrix decoding
              0     no matrix decoding (default)

       equalizer=[g1:g2:g3:...:g10]
              10 octave band graphic equalizer, implemented using
              10 IIR band pass filters.  This means that it works
              regardless of what type of audio  is  being  played
              back.  The center frequencies for the 10 bands are:

              No. frequency
              0    31.25 Hz
              1    62.50 Hz
              2   125.00 Hz
              3   250.00 Hz
              4   500.00 Hz
              5    1.00 kHz
              6    2.00 kHz
              7    4.00 kHz
              8    8.00 kHz
              9   16.00 kHz

              If the sample rate of the  sound  being  played  is
              lower  than  the  center  frequency for a frequency
              band, then that band will be disabled.  A known bug
              with  this  filter  is that the characteristics for
              the uppermost band are not completely symmetric  if
              the sample rate is close to the center frequency of
              that band.  This problem can be  worked  around  by
              upsampling  the sound using the resample filter be-
              fore it reaches this filter.
                 <g1>:<g2>:<g3>:...:<g10>
                      floating  point  numbers  representing  the
                      gain in dB for each frequency band (-12-12)

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer -af equalizer=11:11:10:5:0:-12:0:5:12:12
                 media.avi
                      Would  amplify  the  sound in the upper and
                      lower frequency region while  canceling  it
                      almost completely around 1kHz.

       channels=nch[:nr:from1:to1:from2:to2:from3:to3:...]
              Can be used for adding, removing, routing and copy-
              ing audio channels.  If only <nch> is given the de-
              fault  routing is used, it works as follows: If the
              number of output channels is bigger than the number
              of  input channels empty channels are inserted (ex-
              cept mixing from mono  to  stereo,  then  the  mono
              channel  is  repeated  in  both of the output chan-
              nels).  If the number of output channels is smaller
              than  the  number  of  input channels the exceeding
              channels are truncated.
                 <nch>
                      number of output channels (1-6)



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                 <nr>
                      number of routes (1-6)
                 <from1:to1:from2:to2:from3:to3:...>
                      Pairs of numbers between 0 and 5  that  de-
                      fine where to route each channel.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer -af channels=4:4:0:1:1:0:2:2:3:3 me-
                 dia.avi
                      Would change the number of  channels  to  4
                      and set up 4 routes that swap channel 0 and
                      channel 1 and leave channel 2 and 3 intact.
                      Observe  that if media containing two chan-
                      nels was played  back,  channels  2  and  3
                      would  contain  silence  but  0 and 1 would
                      still be swapped.
                 mplayer -af channels=6:4:0:0:0:1:0:2:0:3 me-
                 dia.avi
                      Would  change  the  number of channels to 6
                      and set up 4 routes that copy channel 0  to
                      channels 0 to 3.  Channel 4 and 5 will con-
                      tain silence.
                 mplayer -af channels=6:6:0:4:1:0:2:1:3:2:4:3:5:5
                 media.avi
                      Should  make the 6-channel ffdca (DTS) out-
                      put work correctly with ALSA.

       format[=format] (also see -format)
              Convert between different sample formats.  Automat-
              ically enabled when needed by the sound card or an-
              other filter.
                 <format>
                      Sets the desired format.  The general  form
                      is  'sbe',  where 's' denotes the sign (ei-
                      ther 's' for signed or 'u'  for  unsigned),
                      'b'  denotes  the number of bits per sample
                      (16, 24 or 32) and 'e' denotes the  endian-
                      ness  ('le'  means little-endian, 'be' big-
                      endian and 'ne' the endianness of the  com-
                      puter MPlayer is running on).  Valid values
                      (amongst others) are: 's16le', 'u32be'  and
                      'u24ne'.   Exceptions to this rule that are
                      also valid format specifiers: u8, s8, floa-
                      tle,  floatbe, floatne, mulaw, alaw, mpeg2,
                      ac3 and imaadpcm.

       volume[=v[:sc]]
              Implements software volume control.  Use this  fil-
              ter  with caution since it can reduce the signal to
              noise ratio of the sound.  In most cases it is best
              to  set  the  level for the PCM sound to max, leave
              this filter out and control  the  output  level  to
              your speakers with the master volume control of the
              mixer.  In case your sound card has a  digital  PCM



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MPlayer(1)               The Movie Player              MPlayer(1)


              mixer  instead  of an analog one, and you hear dis-
              tortion, use the MASTER mixer instead.  If there is
              an  external  amplifier  connected  to the computer
              (this is almost always the case), the  noise  level
              can  be minimized by adjusting the master level and
              the volume knob on the amplifier until the  hissing
              noise in the background is gone.
              This  filter  has a second feature: It measures the
              overall maximum sound level  and  prints  out  that
              level when MPlayer exits.  This volume estimate can
              be used for setting the  sound  level  in  MEncoder
              such that the maximum dynamic range is utilized.
              NOTE:  This  filter is not reentrant and can there-
              fore only be enabled once for every audio stream.
                 <v>
                      Sets the desired gain in dB for  all  chan-
                      nels  in  the  stream from -200dB to +60dB,
                      where -200dB mutes the sound completely and
                      +60dB equals a gain of 1000 (default: 0).
                 <sc>
                      Turns  soft  clipping  on  (1)  or off (0).
                      Soft-clipping  can  make  the  sound   more
                      smooth if very high volume levels are used.
                      Enable this option if the dynamic range  of
                      the loudspeakers is very low.
                      WARNING:  This  feature  creates distortion
                      and should be considered a last resort.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer -af volume=10.1:0 media.avi
                      Would amplify the sound by 10.1dB and hard-
                      clip if the sound level is too high.

       pan=n[:L00:L01:L02:...L10:L11:L12:...Ln0:Ln1:Ln2:...]
              Mixes  channels  arbitrarily.  Basically a combina-
              tion of the volume and the channels filter that can
              be  used  to  down-mix many channels to only a few,
              e.g. stereo to mono or vary the "width" of the cen-
              ter  speaker in a surround sound system.  This fil-
              ter is hard to use, and will require some tinkering
              before  the desired result is obtained.  The number
              of options for this filter depends on the number of
              output  channels.  An example how to downmix a six-
              channel file to two channels with this  filter  can
              be found in the examples section near the end.
                 <n>
                      number of output channels (1-6)
                 <Lij>
                      How  much  of input channel i is mixed into
                      output channel j (0-1).   So  in  principle
                      you  first have n numbers saying what to do
                      with the first input channel, then  n  num-
                      bers  that  act on the second input channel
                      etc.  If you do not specify any numbers for



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                      some input channels, 0 is assumed.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer -af pan=1:0.5:0.5 media.avi
                      Would down-mix from stereo to mono.
                 mplayer -af pan=3:1:0:0.5:0:1:0.5 media.avi
                      Would  give  3 channel output leaving chan-
                      nels 0 and 1 intact, and mix channels 0 and
                      1  into  output  channel  2 (which could be
                      sent to a subwoofer for example).

       sub[=fc:ch]
              Adds a subwoofer channel to the audio stream.   The
              audio  data used for creating the subwoofer channel
              is an average of the sound in channel 0 and channel
              1.   The  resulting sound is then low-pass filtered
              by a 4th order Butterworth filter  with  a  default
              cutoff  frequency  of  60Hz and added to a separate
              channel in the audio stream.
              Warning: Disable this filter when you  are  playing
              DVDs  with  Dolby Digital 5.1 sound, otherwise this
              filter will disrupt the sound to the subwoofer.
                 <fc>
                      cutoff frequency in  Hz  for  the  low-pass
                      filter  (20Hz to 300Hz) (default: 60Hz) For
                      the best result try setting the cutoff fre-
                      quency  as  low as possible.  This will im-
                      prove the stereo or surround sound  experi-
                      ence.
                 <ch>
                      Determines  the  channel number in which to
                      insert the sub-channel audio.  Channel num-
                      ber  can  be  between 0 and 5 (default: 5).
                      Observe that the number  of  channels  will
                      automatically  be increased to <ch> if nec-
                      essary.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer -af sub=100:4 -channels 5 media.avi
                      Would add a sub-woofer channel with a  cut-
                      off frequency of 100Hz to output channel 4.

       center
              Creates a center channel from the  front  channels.
              May  currently be low quality as it does not imple-
              ment a high-pass filter for proper extraction  yet,
              but averages and halves the channels instead.
                 <ch>
                      Determines  the  channel number in which to
                      insert the center channel.  Channel  number
                      can  be  between 0 and 5 (default: 5).  Ob-
                      serve that the number of channels will  au-
                      tomatically  be increased to <ch> if neces-
                      sary.



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       surround[=delay]
              Decoder for matrix encoded surround sound like Dol-
              by Surround.  Many files with 2 channel audio actu-
              ally contain matrixed surround sound.   Requires  a
              sound card supporting at least 4 channels.
                 <delay>
                      delay  time  in ms for the rear speakers (0
                      to 1000) (default: 20) This delay should be
                      set  as follows: If d1 is the distance from
                      the listening position to the front  speak-
                      ers and d2 is the distance from the listen-
                      ing position to the rear speakers, then the
                      delay should be set to 15ms if d1 <= d2 and
                      to 15 + 5*(d1-d2) if d1 > d2.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer -af surround=15 -channels 4 media.avi
                      Would add surround sound decoding with 15ms
                      delay for the sound to the rear speakers.

       delay[=ch1:ch2:...]
              Delays  the sound to the loudspeakers such that the
              sound from the different channels  arrives  at  the
              listening position simultaneously.  It is only use-
              ful if you have more than 2 loudspeakers.
                 ch1,ch2,...
                      The delay in ms that should be  imposed  on
                      each channel (floating point number between
                      0 and 1000).

              To calculate the required delay for  the  different
              channels do as follows:

              1. Measure  the distance to the loudspeakers in me-
                 ters in relation  to  your  listening  position,
                 giving  you  the  distances  s1 to s5 (for a 5.1
                 system).  There is no point in compensating  for
                 the  subwoofer (you will not hear the difference
                 anyway).

              2. Subtract the distances s1 to s5 from the maximum
                 distance,  i.e. s[i] = max(s) - s[i]; i = 1...5.

              3. Calculate the required delays in ms  as  d[i]  =
                 1000*s[i]/342; i = 1...5.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer -af delay=10.5:10.5:0:0:7:0 media.avi
                      Would delay front left and right by 10.5ms,
                      the two rear channels and the  sub  by  0ms
                      and the center channel by 7ms.

       export[=mmapped_file[:nsamples]]
              Exports  the incoming signal to other processes us-



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              ing memory mapping (mmap()).  Memory  mapped  areas
              contain a header:

              int nch                      /*number of channels*/
              int size                     /*buffer size*/
              unsigned long long counter   /*Used to keep sync, updated every
                                             time new data is exported.*/

              The  rest is payload (non-interleaved) 16 bit data.
                 <mmapped_file>
                      file to map  data  to  (default:  ~/.mplay-
                      er/:mplayer-af_export)
                 <nsamples>
                      number  of  samples  per  channel (default:
                      512)

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer -af export=/tmp/mplayer-af_export:1024
                 media.avi
                      Would  export  1024  samples per channel to
                      '/tmp/mplayer-af_export'.

       extrastereo[=mul]
              (Linearly) increases the  difference  between  left
              and  right  channels which adds some sort of "live"
              effect to playback.
                 <mul>
                      Sets the difference  coefficient  (default:
                      2.5).   0.0  means  mono  sound (average of
                      both channels), with 1.0 sound will be  un-
                      changed,  with -1.0 left and right channels
                      will be swapped.

       volnorm[=method:target]
              Maximizes the volume without distorting the  sound.
                 <method>
                      Sets the used method.
                         1:  Use  a  single  sample to smooth the
                         variations  via  the  standard  weighted
                         mean over past samples (default).
                         2:  Use  several  samples  to smooth the
                         variations  via  the  standard  weighted
                         mean over past samples.

                 <target>
                      Sets  the target amplitude as a fraction of
                      the maximum for the sample  type  (default:
                      0.25).

       ladspa=file:label[:controls...]
              Load a LADSPA (Linux Audio Developer's Simple Plug-
              in API) plugin.  This filter is reentrant, so  mul-
              tiple LADSPA plugins can be used at once.




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                 <file>
                      Specifies  the  LADSPA plugin library file.
                      If LADSPA_PATH is set, it searches for  the
                      specified file.  If it is not set, you must
                      supply a fully specified pathname.
                 <label>
                      Specifies the filter  within  the  library.
                      Some libraries contain only one filter, but
                      others  contain  many  of  them.   Entering
                      'help'  here,  will list all available fil-
                      ters within the  specified  library,  which
                      eliminates  the  use  of 'listplugins' from
                      the LADSPA SDK.
                 <controls>
                      Controls are zero or  more  floating  point
                      values  that  determine the behavior of the
                      loaded plugin (for example delay, threshold
                      or  gain).   In verbose mode (add -v to the
                      MPlayer command line), all  available  con-
                      trols  and  their valid ranges are printed.
                      This eliminates the use of  'analyseplugin'
                      from the LADSPA SDK.

       comp
              Compressor/expander  filter  usable  for microphone
              input.  Prevents artifacts on very loud  sound  and
              raises  the  volume on very low sound.  This filter
              is untested, maybe even unusable.

       gate
              Noise gate filter similar to the comp audio filter.
              This filter is untested, maybe even unusable.

       karaoke
              Simple  voice  removal  filter  exploiting the fact
              that voice is usually recorded with mono  gear  and
              later  'center'  mixed onto the final audio stream.
              Beware that this filter will turn your signal  into
              mono.   Works  well  for  2  channel tracks; do not
              bother trying it on anything but 2 channel  stereo.

VIDEO FILTERS
       Video filters allow you to modify the video stream and its
       properties.  The syntax is:

       -vf <filter1[=parameter1:parameter2:...],filter2,...>
              Setup a chain of video filters.

       Many parameters are optional and set to default values  if
       omitted.   To explicitly use a default value set a parame-
       ter to '-1'.  Parameters w:h means width x height in  pix-
       els,  x:y  means  x;y position counted from the upper left
       corner of the bigger image.
       NOTE: To get a full list of available video  filters,  see



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       -vf help.

       Video  filters are managed in lists.  There are a few com-
       mands to manage the filter list.

       -vf-add <filter1[,filter2,...]>
              Appends the filters given as arguments to the  fil-
              ter list.

       -vf-pre <filter1[,filter2,...]>
              Prepends the filters given as arguments to the fil-
              ter list.

       -vf-del <index1[,index2,...]>
              Deletes the filters at the  given  indexes.   Index
              numbers  start  at  0, negative numbers address the
              end of the list (-1 is the last).

       -vf-clr
              Completely empties the filter list.

       With filters that support it, you can access parameters by
       their name.

       -vf <filter>=help
              Prints  the  parameter  names  and  parameter value
              ranges for a particular filter.

       -vf        <filter=named_parameter1=value1[:named_parame-
       ter2=val- ue2:...]>
              Sets a named parameter to the given value.  Use  on
              and off or yes and no to set flag parameters.

       Available filters are:

       crop[=w:h:x:y]
              Crops  the given part of the image and discards the
              rest.  Useful to remove black bands from widescreen
              movies.
                 <w>,<h>
                      Cropped width and height, defaults to orig-
                      inal width and height.
                 <x>,<y>
                      Position of the cropped  picture,  defaults
                      to center.

       cropdetect[=limit:round]
              Calculates necessary cropping parameters and prints
              the recommended parameters to stdout.
                 <limit>
                      Threshold, which can be  optionally  speci-
                      fied  from  nothing (0) to everything (255)
                      (default: 24).




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                 <round>
                      Value which the width/:height should be di-
                      visible  by  (default:  16).  The offset is
                      automatically adjusted to center the video.
                      Use  2  to get only even dimensions (needed
                      for 4:2:2 video).  16 is best when encoding
                      to most video codecs.

       rectangle[=w:h:x:y]
              The  plugin  responds  to  the input.conf directive
              'change_rectangle' that takes two parameters.
                 <w>,<h>
                      width and height (default: -1, maximum pos-
                      sible width where boundaries are still vis-
                      ible.)
                 <x>,<y>
                      top left corner position (default: -1,  up-
                      permost leftmost)

       expand[=w:h:x:y:o:a:r]
              Expands  (not scales) movie resolution to the given
              value and places the unscaled original  at  coordi-
              nates x, y.  Can be used for placing subtitles/:OSD
              in the resulting black bands.

                 <w>,<h>
                      Expanded  width,height  (default:  original
                      width,height).  Negative values for w and h
                      are treated  as  offsets  to  the  original
                      size.

                      EXAMPLE:
                           expand=0:-50:0:0
                                  Adds  a  50 pixel border to the
                                  bottom of the picture.

                 <x>,<y>
                      position of original image on the  expanded
                      image (default: center)

                 <o>
                      OSD/:subtitle rendering
                         0: disable (default)
                         1: enable

                 <a>
                      Expands to fit an aspect instead of a reso-
                      lution (default: 0).

                      EXAMPLE:
                           expand=800:::::4/3
                                  Expands to 800x600, unless  the
                                  source is higher resolution, in
                                  which case it expands to fill a



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                                  4/3 aspect.

                 <r>
                      Rounds up to make both width and height di-
                      visible by <r> (default: 1).

       flip (also see -flip)
              Flips the image upside down.

       mirror
              Mirrors the image on the Y axis.

       rotate[=<0-7>]
              Rotates the image  by  90  degrees  and  optionally
              flips  it.  For values between 4-7 rotation is only
              done if the movie  geometry  is  portrait  and  not
              landscape.

                 0    Rotate  by  90  degrees  clockwise and flip
                      (default).

                 1    Rotate by 90 degrees clockwise.

                 2    Rotate by 90 degrees counterclockwise.

                 3    Rotate by 90 degrees  counterclockwise  and
                      flip.

       scale[=w:h[:ilaced[:chr_drop[:par[:par2[:pre-
       size[:noup[:arnd]]]]]]]]
              Scales  the  image  with the software scaler (slow)
              and performs a YUV<->RGB colorspace conversion (al-
              so see -sws).

                 <w>,<h>
                      scaled   width/:height  (default:  original
                      width/:height)
                      NOTE: If -zoom is used, and underlying fil-
                      ters  (including  libvo)  are  incapable of
                      scaling, it defaults to  d_width/:d_height!
                          0:   scaled d_width/:d_height
                         -1:   original width/:height
                         -2:    Calculate w/h using the other di-
                         mension and the prescaled aspect  ratio.
                         -3:    Calculate w/h using the other di-
                         mension and the original aspect ratio.
                         -(n+8): Like -n above, but rounding  the
                         dimension to the closest multiple of 16.

                 <ilaced>
                      Toggle interlaced scaling.
                         0: off (default)
                         1: on




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                 <chr_drop>
                      chroma skipping
                         0: Use all  available  input  lines  for
                         chroma.
                         1:  Use  only  every  2.  input line for
                         chroma.
                         2: Use only  every  4.  input  line  for
                         chroma.
                         3:  Use  only  every  8.  input line for
                         chroma.

                 <par>[:<par2>] (also see -sws)
                      Set some scaling  parameters  depending  on
                      the type of scaler selected with -sws.
                         -sws  2  (bicubic):   B (blurring) and C
                         (ringing)
                         0.00:0.60 default
                         0.00:0.75 VirtualDub's "precise bicubic"
                         0.00:0.50 Catmull-Rom spline
                         0.33:0.33 Mitchell-Netravali spline
                         1.00:0.00 cubic B-spline
                         -sws 7 (gaussian): sharpness (0 (soft) -
                         100 (sharp))
                         -sws 9 (lanczos):  filter length (1-10)

                 <presize>
                      Scale to preset sizes.
                         qntsc:   352x240 (NTSC quarter screen)
                         qpal:    352x288 (PAL quarter screen)
                         ntsc:    720x480 (standard NTSC)
                         pal:     720x576 (standard PAL)
                         sntsc:   640x480 (square pixel NTSC)
                         spal:    768x576 (square pixel PAL)

                 <noup>
                      Disallow upscaling past the original dimen-
                      sions.
                         0: Allow upscaling (default).
                         1:  Disallow  upscaling if one dimension
                         exceeds its original value.
                         2: Disallow upscaling if both dimensions
                         exceed their original values.

                 <arnd>
                      Accurate  rounding for the vertical scaler,
                      which may be faster or slower than the  de-
                      fault rounding.
                         0:  Disable accurate rounding (default).
                         1: Enable accurate rounding.

       dsize[=aspect|w:h:aspect-method:r]
              Changes the intended display size/:aspect at an ar-
              bitrary  point  in the filter chain.  Aspect can be
              given as a fraction (4/3) or floating point  number



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              (1.33).   Alternatively,  you may specify the exact
              display width and height desired.  Note  that  this
              filter  does not do any scaling itself; it just af-
              fects what later  scalers  (software  or  hardware)
              will do when auto-scaling to correct aspect.

                 <w>,<h>
                      New  display width and height.  Can also be
                      these special values:
                          0:   original display width and height
                         -1:   original video  width  and  height
                         (default)
                         -2:    Calculate w/h using the other di-
                         mension and the original display  aspect
                         ratio.
                         -3:    Calculate w/h using the other di-
                         mension and the  original  video  aspect
                         ratio.

                 EXAMPLE:
                           dsize=800:-2
                                  Specifies  a display resolution
                                  of 800x600  for  a  4/3  aspect
                                  video,  or  800x450  for a 16/9
                                  aspect video.
                 <aspect-method>
                      Modifies  width  and  height  according  to
                      original aspect ratios.
                         -1:  Ignore  original  aspect ratio (de-
                         fault).
                          0: Keep display aspect ratio  by  using
                         <w> and <h> as maximum resolution.
                          1:  Keep  display aspect ratio by using
                         <w> and <h> as minimum resolution.
                          2: Keep video aspect ratio by using <w>
                         and <h> as maximum resolution.
                          3: Keep video aspect ratio by using <w>
                         and <h> as minimum resolution.

                 EXAMPLE:
                           dsize=800:600:0
                                  Specifies a display  resolution
                                  of at most 800x600, or smaller,
                                  in order to keep aspect.

                 <r>
                      Rounds up to make both width and height di-
                      visible by <r> (default: 1).

       yuy2
              Forces  software  YV12/:I420/:422P  to YUY2 conver-
              sion.  Useful for video  cards/:drivers  with  slow
              YV12 but fast YUY2 support.




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       yvu9
              Forces software YVU9 to YV12 colorspace conversion.
              Deprecated in favor of the software scaler.

       yuvcsp
              Clamps YUV color values to the CCIR 601 range with-
              out doing real conversion.

       rgb2bgr[=swap]
              RGB 24/32 <-> BGR 24/32 colorspace conversion.
                 swap
                      Also perform  R <-> B swapping.

       palette
              RGB/BGR  8  -> 15/16/24/32bpp colorspace conversion
              using palette.

       format[=fourcc]
              Restricts the colorspace for the next filter  with-
              out  doing  any  conversion.  Use together with the
              scale filter for a real conversion.
              NOTE: For a list  of  available  formats  see  for-
              mat=fmt=help.
                 <fourcc>
                      format  name  like  rgb15, bgr24, yv12, etc
                      (default: yuy2)

       noformat[=fourcc]
              Restricts the colorspace for the next filter  with-
              out  doing  any conversion.  Unlike the format fil-
              ter, this will allow any colorspace except the  one
              you specify.
              NOTE:  For  a  list of available formats see nofor-
              mat=fmt=help.
                 <fourcc>
                      format name like rgb15,  bgr24,  yv12,  etc
                      (default: yv12)

       pp[=filter1[:option1[:option2...]]/[-]filter2...]    (also
       see -pphelp)
              Enables  the specified chain of postprocessing sub-
              filters.  Subfilters must be separated by  '/'  and
              can  be disabled by prepending a '-'.  Each subfil-
              ter and some options have a short and a  long  name
              that  can  be  used interchangeably, i.e. dr/dering
              are the same.  All subfilters share common  options
              to determine their scope:
                 a/autoq
                      Automatically  switch  the subfilter off if
                      the CPU is too slow.
                 c/chrom
                      Do chrominance filtering, too (default).
                 y/nochrom
                      Do luminance  filtering  only  (no  chromi-



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                      nance).
                 n/noluma
                      Do  chrominance  filtering  only  (no lumi-
                      nance).

              NOTE: -pphelp shows a list of available subfilters.

              Available subfilters are

                 hb/hdeblock[:difference[:flatness]]
                      horizontal deblocking filter
                         <difference>:  Difference  factor  where
                         higher values mean more deblocking  (de-
                         fault: 32).
                         <flatness>:   Flatness  threshold  where
                         lower values mean more  deblocking  (de-
                         fault: 39).

                 vb/vdeblock[:difference[:flatness]]
                      vertical deblocking filter
                         <difference>:  Difference  factor  where
                         higher values mean more deblocking  (de-
                         fault: 32).
                         <flatness>:   Flatness  threshold  where
                         lower values mean more  deblocking  (de-
                         fault: 39).

                 ha/hadeblock[:difference[:flatness]]
                      accurate horizontal deblocking filter
                         <difference>:  Difference  factor  where
                         higher values mean more deblocking  (de-
                         fault: 32).
                         <flatness>:   Flatness  threshold  where
                         lower values mean more  deblocking  (de-
                         fault: 39).

                 va/vadeblock[:difference[:flatness]]
                      accurate vertical deblocking filter
                         <difference>:  Difference  factor  where
                         higher values mean more deblocking  (de-
                         fault: 32).
                         <flatness>:   Flatness  threshold  where
                         lower values mean more  deblocking  (de-
                         fault: 39).

                 The  horizontal  and vertical deblocking filters
                 share the difference and flatness values so  you
                 cannot  set  different  horizontal  and vertical
                 thresholds.


                 h1/x1hdeblock
                      experimental horizontal deblocking filter




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                 v1/x1vdeblock
                      experimental vertical deblocking filter

                 dr/dering
                      deringing filter

                 tn/tmpnoise[:threshold1[:threshold2[:thresh-
                 old3]]]
                      temporal noise reducer
                         <threshold1>: larger -> stronger filter-
                         ing
                         <threshold2>: larger -> stronger filter-
                         ing
                         <threshold3>: larger -> stronger filter-
                         ing

                 al/autolevels[:f/fullyrange]
                      automatic brightness / contrast correction
                         f/fullyrange:   Stretch   luminance   to
                         (0-255).

                 lb/linblenddeint
                      Linear   blend  deinterlacing  filter  that
                      deinterlaces the given block  by  filtering
                      all lines with a (1 2 1) filter.

                 li/linipoldeint
                      Linear  interpolating  deinterlacing filter
                      that deinterlaces the given block  by  lin-
                      early interpolating every second line.

                 ci/cubicipoldeint
                      Cubic  interpolating  deinterlacing  filter
                      deinterlaces the given block  by  cubically
                      interpolating every second line.

                 md/mediandeint
                      Median  deinterlacing  filter that deinter-
                      laces the given block by applying a  median
                      filter to every second line.

                 fd/ffmpegdeint
                      FFmpeg  deinterlacing  filter that deinter-
                      laces the given block  by  filtering  every
                      second line with a (-1 4 2 4 -1) filter.

                 l5/lowpass5
                      Vertically  applied FIR lowpass deinterlac-
                      ing  filter  that  deinterlaces  the  given
                      block by filtering all lines with a (-1 2 6
                      2 -1) filter.

                 fq/forceQuant[:quantizer]
                      Overrides the quantizer table from the  in-



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                      put  with the constant quantizer you speci-
                      fy.
                         <quantizer>: quantizer to use

                 de/default
                      default     pp      filter      combination
                      (hb:a,vb:a,dr:a)

                 fa/fast
                      fast pp filter combination (h1:a,v1:a,dr:a)

                 ac
                      high   quality   pp   filter    combination
                      (ha:a:128:7,va:a,dr:a)

              EXAMPLE:
                 -vf pp=hb/vb/dr/al
                      horizontal and vertical deblocking, dering-
                      ing and automatic brightness/:contrast
                 -vf pp=de/-al
                      default  filters  without  brightness/:con-
                      trast correction
                 -vf pp=default/tmpnoise:1:2:3
                      Enable default filters & temporal denoiser.
                 -vf pp=hb:y/vb:a
                      Horizontal deblocking  on  luminance  only,
                      and  switch  vertical  deblocking on or off
                      automatically depending  on  available  CPU
                      time.

       spp[=quality[:qp[:mode]]]
              Simple  postprocessing  filter  that compresses and
              decompresses the image at several (or - in the case
              of  quality  level 6 - all) shifts and averages the
              results.

                 <quality>
                      0-6 (default: 3)

                 <qp>
                      Force quantization parameter  (default:  0,
                      use QP from video).

                 <mode>
                      0: hard thresholding (default)
                      1: soft thresholding (better deringing, but
                      blurrier)
                      4: like 0, but also use B-frames'  QP  (may
                      cause flicker)
                      5:  like  1, but also use B-frames' QP (may
                      cause flicker)

       uspp[=quality[:qp]]
              Ultra simple & slow postprocessing filter that com-



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              presses and decompresses the image at several (or -
              in the case of quality level 8 -  all)  shifts  and
              averages  the  results.   The way this differs from
              the behavior of spp is that uspp actually encodes &
              decodes each case with libavcodec Snow, whereas spp
              uses a simplified intra only  8x8  DCT  similar  to
              MJPEG.

                 <quality>
                      0-8 (default: 3)

                 <qp>
                      Force  quantization  parameter (default: 0,
                      use QP from video).

       fspp[=quality[:qp[:strength[:bframes]]]]
              faster version of the simple postprocessing filter

                 <quality>
                      4-5 (equivalent to spp; default: 4)

                 <qp>
                      Force quantization parameter  (default:  0,
                      use QP from video).

                 <-15-32>
                      Filter strength, lower values mean more de-
                      tails but also more artifacts, while higher
                      values  make  the  image  smoother but also
                      blurrier (default: 0 - PSNR optimal).

                 <bframes>
                      0: do not use QP from B-frames (default)
                      1: use QP  from  B-frames  too  (may  cause
                      flicker)

       pp7[=qp[:mode]]
              Variant  of the spp filter, similar to spp=6 with 7
              point DCT where only the center sample is used  af-
              ter IDCT.

                 <qp>
                      Force  quantization  parameter (default: 0,
                      use QP from video).

                 <mode>
                      0: hard thresholding
                      1: soft thresholding (better deringing, but
                      blurrier)
                      2:  medium  thresholding (default, good re-
                      sults)

       qp=equation
              quantization parameter (QP) change filter



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                 <equation>
                      some equation like "2+2*sin(PI*qp)"

       geq=equation
              generic equation change filter

                 <equation>
                      Some equation, e.g.   'p(W-X\,Y)'  to  flip
                      the   image   horizontally.   You  can  use
                      whitespace to make the equation more  read-
                      able.  There are a couple of constants that
                      can be used in the equation:
                         PI: the number pi
                         E: the number e
                         X / Y: the coordinates  of  the  current
                         sample
                         W / H: width and height of the image
                         SW / SH: width/height scale depending on
                         the currently filtered plane,  e.g.  1,1
                         and 0.5,0.5 for YUV 4:2:0.
                         p(x,y):  returns  the value of the pixel
                         at location x/y of the current plane.

       test
              Generate various test patterns.

       rgbtest
              Generate an RGB test pattern useful  for  detecting
              RGB vs BGR issues.  You should see a red, green and
              blue stripe from top to bottom.

       lavc[=quality:fps]
              Fast software YV12 to MPEG-1 conversion with libav-
              codec for use with DVB/:DXR3/:IVTV/:V4L2.

                 <quality>
                      1-31: fixed qscale
                      32-:  fixed bitrate in kbits

                 <fps>
                      force output fps (float value) (default: 0,
                      autodetect based on height)

       dvbscale[=aspect]
              Set up optimal scaling for DVB cards, scaling the x
              axis in hardware and calculating the y axis scaling
              in software to keep aspect.  Only  useful  together
              with expand and scale.

                 <aspect>
                      Control    aspect   ratio,   calculate   as
                      DVB_HEIGHT*ASPECTRATIO            (default:
                      576*4/3=768), set it to 576*(16/9)=1024 for
                      a 16:9 TV.



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              EXAMPLE:
                 -vf dvbscale,scale=-1:0,ex-
                 pand=-1:576:-1:-1:1,lavc
                      FIXME: Explain what this does.

       noise[=luma[u][t|a][h][p]:chroma[u][t|a][h][p]]
              Adds noise.
                 <0-100>
                      luma noise
                 <0-100>
                      chroma noise
                 u    uniform noise (gaussian otherwise)
                 t    temporal  noise  (noise pattern changes be-
                      tween frames)
                 a    averaged temporal noise  (smoother,  but  a
                      lot slower)
                 h    high   quality  (slightly  better  looking,
                      slightly slower)
                 p    mix random noise with a (semi)regular  pat-
                      tern

       denoise3d[=luma_spatial:chroma_spatial:luma_tmp:chro-
       ma_tmp]
              This filter aims to reduce  image  noise  producing
              smooth  images and making still images really still
              (This should enhance compressibility.).
                 <luma_spatial>
                      spatial luma strength (default: 4)
                 <chroma_spatial>
                      spatial chroma strength (default: 3)
                 <luma_tmp>
                      luma temporal strength (default: 6)
                 <chroma_tmp>
                      chroma    temporal    strength    (default:
                      luma_tmp*chroma_spatial/luma_spatial)

       hqdn3d[=luma_spatial:chroma_spatial:luma_tmp:chroma_tmp]
              High  precision/:quality  version  of the denoise3d
              filter.  Parameters and usage are the same.

       eq[=brightness:contrast] (OBSOLETE)
              Software equalizer with interactive  controls  just
              like  the  hardware  equalizer,  for cards/:drivers
              that do not support brightness  and  contrast  con-
              trols  in hardware.  Might also be useful with MEn-
              coder, either for fixing poorly captured movies, or
              for  slightly  reducing  contrast to mask artifacts
              and get by with lower bitrates.
                 <-100-100>
                      initial brightness
                 <-100-100>
                      initial contrast





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       eq2[=gamma:contrast:brightness:saturation:rg:gg:bg:weight]
              Alternative software equalizer that uses lookup ta-
              bles (very slow), allowing gamma correction in  ad-
              dition  to  simple  brightness and contrast adjust-
              ment.  Note that it uses  the  same  MMX  optimized
              code  as  -vf  eq if all gamma values are 1.0.  The
              parameters are given as floating point values.
                 <0.1-10>
                      initial gamma value (default: 1.0)
                 <-2-2>
                      initial contrast, where negative values re-
                      sult in a negative image (default: 1.0)
                 <-1-1>
                      initial brightness (default: 0.0)
                 <0-3>
                      initial saturation (default: 1.0)
                 <0.1-10>
                      gamma value for the red component (default:
                      1.0)
                 <0.1-10>
                      gamma value for the  green  component  (de-
                      fault: 1.0)
                 <0.1-10>
                      gamma  value  for  the  blue component (de-
                      fault: 1.0)
                 <0-1>
                      The weight parameter can be used to  reduce
                      the  effect of a high gamma value on bright
                      image areas, e.g. keep  them  from  getting
                      overamplified and just plain white.  A val-
                      ue of 0.0 turns the  gamma  correction  all
                      the  way  down  while  1.0 leaves it at its
                      full strength (default: 1.0).

       hue[=hue:saturation]
              Software equalizer with interactive  controls  just
              like  the  hardware  equalizer,  for cards/:drivers
              that do not support hue and saturation controls  in
              hardware.
                 <-180-180>
                      initial hue (default: 0.0)
                 <-100-100>
                      initial  saturation,  where negative values
                      result in a negative chroma (default: 1.0)

       halfpack[=f]
              Convert planar  YUV  4:2:0  to  half-height  packed
              4:2:2,  downsampling  luma  but  keeping all chroma
              samples.  Useful for output to low-resolution  dis-
              play  devices  when  hardware  downscaling  is poor
              quality or is not available.  Can also be used as a
              primitive  luma-only deinterlacer with very low CPU
              usage.




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                 <f>
                      By  default,  halfpack  averages  pairs  of
                      lines when downsampling.  Any value differ-
                      ent from 0 or 1 gives the default  (averag-
                      ing) behavior.
                         0:  Only  use  even  lines when downsam-
                         pling.
                         1: Only use odd lines when downsampling.

       ilpack[=mode]
              When  interlaced  video is stored in YUV 4:2:0 for-
              mats, chroma interlacing does not line up  properly
              due  to  vertical  downsampling of the chroma chan-
              nels.  This filter packs the planar 4:2:0 data into
              YUY2  (4:2:2) format with the chroma lines in their
              proper locations, so that in  any  given  scanline,
              the  luma  and  chroma data both come from the same
              field.
                 <mode>
                      Select the sampling mode.
                         0: nearest-neighbor sampling,  fast  but
                         incorrect
                         1: linear interpolation (default)

       harddup
              Only useful with MEncoder.  If harddup is used when
              encoding, it will force duplicate frames to be  en-
              coded  in  the  output.   This  uses  slightly more
              space, but is necessary for output to MPEG files or
              if you plan to demux and remux the video stream af-
              ter encoding.  Should be placed at or near the  end
              of  the  filter chain unless you have a good reason
              to do otherwise.

       softskip
              Only useful  with  MEncoder.   Softskip  moves  the
              frame skipping (dropping) step of encoding from be-
              fore the filter chain to some point during the fil-
              ter  chain.   This allows filters which need to see
              all frames (inverse telecine,  temporal  denoising,
              etc.) to function properly.  Should be placed after
              the filters which need to see all frames and before
              any subsequent filters that are CPU-intensive.

       decimate[=max:hi:lo:frac]
              Drops  frames  that  do not differ greatly from the
              previous frame in order to reduce  framerate.   The
              main use of this filter is for very-low-bitrate en-
              coding (e.g. streaming over dialup modem),  but  it
              could in theory be used for fixing movies that were
              inverse-telecined incorrectly.
                 <max>
                      Sets  the  maximum  number  of  consecutive
                      frames  which can be dropped (if positive),



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                      or the  minimum  interval  between  dropped
                      frames (if negative).
                 <hi>,<lo>,<frac>
                      A  frame  is a candidate for dropping if no
                      8x8 region differs by more than a threshold
                      of  <hi>,  and if not more than <frac> por-
                      tion (1 meaning the whole image) differs by
                      more  than  a threshold of <lo>.  Values of
                      <hi> and <lo> are for 8x8 pixel blocks  and
                      represent  actual  pixel value differences,
                      so a threshold of 64 corresponds to 1  unit
                      of  difference  for each pixel, or the same
                      spread out differently over the block.

       dint[=sense:level]
              The  drop-deinterlace  (dint)  filter  detects  and
              drops  the  first  from  a  set of interlaced video
              frames.
                 <0.0-1.0>
                      relative  difference  between   neighboring
                      pixels (default: 0.1)
                 <0.0-1.0>
                      What  part  of the image has to be detected
                      as interlaced to drop the  frame  (default:
                      0.15).

       lavcdeint (OBSOLETE)
              FFmpeg deinterlacing filter, same as -vf pp=fd

       kerndeint[=thresh[:map[:order[:sharp[:twoway]]]]]
              Donald Graft's adaptive kernel deinterlacer.  Dein-
              terlaces parts of a video if a configurable thresh-
              old is exceeded.
                 <0-255>
                      threshold (default: 10)
                 <map>
                         0: Ignore pixels exceeding the threshold
                         (default).
                         1: Paint pixels exceeding the  threshold
                         white.

                 <order>
                         0: Leave fields alone (default).
                         1: Swap fields.

                 <sharp>
                         0:  Disable  additional  sharpening (de-
                         fault).
                         1: Enable additional sharpening.

                 <twoway>
                         0: Disable twoway sharpening  (default).
                         1: Enable twoway sharpening.




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       unsharp[=l|cWxH:amount[:l|cWxH:amount]]
              unsharp mask / gaussian blur

                 l
                      Apply effect on luma component.

                 c
                      Apply effect on chroma components.

                 <width>x<height>
                      width  and  height of the matrix, odd sized
                      in both directions (min = 3x3, max =  13x11
                      or 11x13, usually something between 3x3 and
                      7x7)

                 amount
                      Relative amount of sharpness/:blur  to  add
                      to  the  image  (a  sane  range  should  be
                      -1.5-1.5).
                         <0: blur
                         >0: sharpen

       swapuv
              Swap U & V plane.

       il[=d|i][s][:[d|i][s]]
              (De)interleaves lines.  The goal of this filter  is
              to  add  the  ability  to process interlaced images
              pre-field without deinterlacing them.  You can fil-
              ter your interlaced DVD and play it on a TV without
              breaking  the  interlacing.   While   deinterlacing
              (with  the postprocessing filter) removes interlac-
              ing  permanently  (by  smoothing,  averaging,  etc)
              deinterleaving  splits  the frame into 2 fields (so
              called half pictures), so you can process  (filter)
              them independently and then re-interleave them.
                 d    deinterleave (placing one above the other)
                 i    interleave
                 s    swap fields (exchange even & odd lines)

       fil[=i|d]
              (De)interleaves lines.  This filter is very similar
              to the il filter but much faster, the  main  disad-
              vantage is that it does not always work.  Especial-
              ly if combined with other filters  it  may  produce
              randomly  messed up images, so be happy if it works
              but do not complain if it does not for your  combi-
              nation of filters.
                 d    Deinterleave  fields,  placing them side by
                      side.
                 i    Interleave fields again (reversing the  ef-
                      fect of fil=d).





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       field[=n]
              Extracts  a  single  field from an interlaced image
              using stride arithmetic to avoid wasting CPU  time.
              The  optional  argument  n specifies whether to ex-
              tract the even  or  the  odd  field  (depending  on
              whether n is even or odd).

       detc[=var1=value1:var2=value2:...]
              Attempts  to  reverse the 'telecine' process to re-
              cover a clean, non-interlaced stream at film  fram-
              erate.   This  was the first and most primitive in-
              verse telecine filter to be added to  MPlayer/:MEn-
              coder.   It works by latching onto the telecine 3:2
              pattern and following it as long as possible.  This
              makes it suitable for perfectly-telecined material,
              even in the presence of a fair degree of noise, but
              it  will  fail  in  the  presence  of complex post-
              telecine edits.  Development on this filter  is  no
              longer  taking place, as ivtc, pullup, and filmdint
              are better for most  applications.   The  following
              arguments (see syntax above) may be used to control
              detc's behavior:

                 <dr>
                      Set the frame dropping mode.
                         0: Do not drop frames to maintain  fixed
                         output framerate (default).
                         1:  Always  drop a frame when there have
                         been no drops or telecine merges in  the
                         past 5 frames.
                         2:  Always  maintain  exact 5:4 input to
                         output frame ratio.
                         NOTE: Use mode 1 or 2 with MEncoder.

                 <am>
                      Analysis mode.
                         0: Fixed pattern with initial frame num-
                         ber specified by <fr>.
                         1:  aggressive  search for telecine pat-
                         tern (default)

                 <fr>
                      Set initial frame number in sequence.   0-2
                      are  the  three clean progressive frames; 3
                      and 4 are the two interlaced  frames.   The
                      default,  -1,  means  'not  in telecine se-
                      quence'.  The number specified here is  the
                      type  for  the imaginary previous frame be-
                      fore the movie starts.

                 <t0>, <t1>, <t2>, <t3>
                      Threshold values  to  be  used  in  certain
                      modes.




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       ivtc[=1]
              Experimental  'stateless'  inverse telecine filter.
              Rather than trying to lock on to a pattern like the
              detc filter does, ivtc makes its decisions indepen-
              dently for each frame.  This will give much  better
              results for material that has undergone heavy edit-
              ing after telecine was applied, but as a result  it
              is  not as forgiving of noisy input, for example TV
              capture.  The optional  parameter  (ivtc=1)  corre-
              sponds  to the dr=1 option for the detc filter, and
              should be used with MEncoder but not with  MPlayer.
              As  with  detc, you must specify the correct output
              framerate (-ofps 24000/1001) when  using  MEncoder.
              Further  development  on  ivtc  has stopped, as the
              pullup and filmdint filters appear to be much  more
              accurate.

       pullup[=jl:jr:jt:jb:sb:mp]
              Third-generation    pulldown    reversal   (inverse
              telecine) filter, capable of handling  mixed  hard-
              telecine,    24000/1001    fps   progressive,   and
              30000/1001 fps  progressive  content.   The  pullup
              filter is designed to be much more robust than detc
              or ivtc, by taking advantage of future  context  in
              making  its decisions.  Like ivtc, pullup is state-
              less in the sense that it does not lock onto a pat-
              tern to follow, but it instead looks forward to the
              following fields in order to identify  matches  and
              rebuild  progressive frames.  It is still under de-
              velopment, but believed to be quite accurate.

                 jl, jr, jt, and jb
                      These options set the amount of  "junk"  to
                      ignore  at the left, right, top, and bottom
                      of the  image,  respectively.   Left/:right
                      are in units of 8 pixels, while top/:bottom
                      are in units of 2 lines.  The default is  8
                      pixels on each side.

                 sb (strict breaks)
                      Setting  this  option  to 1 will reduce the
                      chances of pullup generating an  occasional
                      mismatched  frame, but it may also cause an
                      excessive number of frames  to  be  dropped
                      during  high motion sequences.  Conversely,
                      setting it to -1  will  make  pullup  match
                      fields more easily.  This may help process-
                      ing of video where there is slight blurring
                      between  the  fields,  but  may  also cause
                      there to be interlaced frames in  the  out-
                      put.

                 mp (metric plane)
                      This  option  may be set to 1 or 2 to use a



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                      chroma plane instead of the luma plane  for
                      doing  pullup's computations.  This may im-
                      prove accuracy on very clean source materi-
                      al, but more likely will decrease accuracy,
                      especially if there is chroma noise  (rain-
                      bow  effect)  or  any grayscale video.  The
                      main purpose of  setting  mp  to  a  chroma
                      plane is to reduce CPU load and make pullup
                      usable in realtime on slow machines.

              NOTE: Always follow pullup with the softskip filter
              when  encoding to ensure that pullup is able to see
              each frame.  Failure to do so will lead  to  incor-
              rect  output  and will usually crash, due to design
              limitations in the codec/:filter layer.

       filmdint[=options]
              Inverse telecine filter, similar to the pullup fil-
              ter  above.   It is designed to handle any pulldown
              pattern, including mixed soft and hard telecine and
              limited  support for movies that are slowed down or
              sped up from their original framerate for TV.  Only
              the  luma  plane  is used to find the frame breaks.
              If a field has no match, it  is  deinterlaced  with
              simple  linear  approximation.   If  the  source is
              MPEG-2, this must be the first filter to allow  ac-
              cess  to the field-flags set by the MPEG-2 decoder.
              Depending on the source MPEG, you may be  fine  ig-
              noring  this advice, as long as you do not see lots
              of "Bottom-first field" warnings.  With no  options
              it does normal inverse telecine, and should be used
              together  with  mencoder  -fps   30000/1001   -ofps
              24000/1001.  When this filter is used with mplayer,
              it will result in an uneven framerate during  play-
              back,  but  it is still generally better than using
              pp=lb or no deinterlacing at all.  Multiple options
              can be specified separated by /.

                 crop=<w>:<h>:<x>:<y>
                      Just  like the crop filter, but faster, and
                      works on mixed hard and soft telecined con-
                      tent as well as when y is not a multiple of
                      4.  If x or y would require cropping  frac-
                      tional  pixels  from the chroma planes, the
                      crop area is extended.  This usually  means
                      that x and y must be even.

                 io=<ifps>:<ofps>
                      For  each ifps input frames the filter will
                      output ofps frames.  The ratio of ifps/:of-
                      ps should match the -fps/-ofps ratio.  This
                      could be used to  filter  movies  that  are
                      broadcast  on  TV at a frame rate different
                      from their original framerate.



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                 luma_only=<n>
                      If n is nonzero, the chroma plane is copied
                      unchanged.  This is useful for YV12 sampled
                      TV,  which  discards  one  of  the   chroma
                      fields.

                 mmx2=<n>
                      On  x86,  if  n=1, use MMX2 optimized func-
                      tions, if n=2, use 3DNow!  optimized  func-
                      tions, otherwise, use plain C.  If this op-
                      tion is not specified, MMX2 and 3DNow!  are
                      auto-detected,  use this option to override
                      auto-detection.

                 fast=<n>
                      The larger n will speed up  the  filter  at
                      the expense of accuracy.  The default value
                      is n=3.  If n is odd, a  frame  immediately
                      following  a  frame  marked  with  the  RE-
                      PEAT_FIRST_FIELD MPEG flag is assumed to be
                      progressive, thus filter will not spend any
                      time  on  soft-telecined  MPEG-2   content.
                      This  is  the  only  effect of this flag if
                      MMX2 or 3DNow! is available.  Without  MMX2
                      and  3DNow,  if n=0 or 1, the same calcula-
                      tions will be used as with n=2  or  3.   If
                      n=2 or 3, the number of luma levels used to
                      find the frame breaks is reduced  from  256
                      to  128,  which  results in a faster filter
                      without losing much accuracy.  If n=4 or 5,
                      a  faster,  but  much  less accurate metric
                      will be used  to  find  the  frame  breaks,
                      which is more likely to misdetect high ver-
                      tical detail as interlaced content.

                 verbose=<n>
                      If n is nonzero, print the detailed metrics
                      for each frame.  Useful for debugging.

                 dint_thres=<n>
                      Deinterlace  threshold.  Used during de-in-
                      terlacing of unmatched frames.  Larger val-
                      ue  means  less deinterlacing, use n=256 to
                      completely turn off deinterlacing.  Default
                      is n=8.

                 comb_thres=<n>
                      Threshold  for  comparing  a top and bottom
                      fields.  Defaults to 128.

                 diff_thres=<n>
                      Threshold to detect temporal  change  of  a
                      field.  Default is 128.




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                 sad_thres=<n>
                      Sum  of  Absolute Difference threshold, de-
                      fault is 64.

       softpulldown
              This filter works only correct  with  MEncoder  and
              acts on the MPEG-2 flags used for soft 3:2 pulldown
              (soft telecine).  If you want to use  the  ivtc  or
              detc   filter   on  movies  that  are  partly  soft
              telecined, inserting this filter before them should
              make them more reliable.

       divtc[=options]
              Inverse   telecine   for  deinterlaced  video.   If
              3:2-pulldown telecined video has lost  one  of  the
              fields or is deinterlaced using a method that keeps
              one field and interpolates the other, the result is
              a  juddering  video that has every fourth frame du-
              plicated.  This filter is intended to find and drop
              those  duplicates  and  restore  the  original film
              framerate.  When using this filter, you must speci-
              fy  -ofps  that is 4/5 of the fps of the input file
              and place the softskip later in the filter chain to
              make sure that divtc sees all the frames.  Two dif-
              ferent modes are available: One pass  mode  is  the
              default  and is straightforward to use, but has the
              disadvantage that any changes in the telecine phase
              (lost  frames  or bad edits) cause momentary judder
              until the filter can resync again.  Two  pass  mode
              avoids this by analyzing the whole video beforehand
              so it will have forward knowledge about  the  phase
              changes  and  can  resync at the exact spot.  These
              passes do not correspond to pass one and two of the
              encoding process.  You must run an extra pass using
              divtc pass one before the actual encoding  throwing
              the resulting video away.  Use -nosound -ovc raw -o
              /dev/null to avoid wasting CPU power for this pass.
              You may add something like crop=2:2:0:0 after divtc
              to speed things up even more.  Then use divtc  pass
              two  for  the actual encoding.  If you use multiple
              encoder passes, use divtc pass two for all of them.
              The options are:

                 pass=1|2
                      Use two pass mode.

                 file=<filename>
                      Set  the  two  pass  log filename (default:
                      "framediff.log").

                 threshold=<value>
                      Set the minimum strength the telecine  pat-
                      tern must have for the filter to believe in
                      it (default: 0.5).  This is used  to  avoid



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                      recognizing false pattern from the parts of
                      the video that are very dark or very still.

                 window=<numframes>
                      Set  the  number  of past frames to look at
                      when searching for pattern  (default:  30).
                      Longer  window  improves the reliability of
                      the pattern search, but shorter window  im-
                      proves  the reaction time to the changes in
                      the telecine phase.  This only affects  the
                      one pass mode.  The two pass mode currently
                      uses fixed window that extends to both  fu-
                      ture and past.

                 phase=0|1|2|3|4
                      Sets  the  initial  telecine  phase for one
                      pass mode (default: 0).  The two pass  mode
                      can  see  the  future, so it is able to use
                      the correct phase from the  beginning,  but
                      one  pass  mode can only guess.  It catches
                      the correct phase when  it  finds  it,  but
                      this option can be used to fix the possible
                      juddering at the beginning.  The first pass
                      of  the two pass mode also uses this, so if
                      you save the output from  the  first  pass,
                      you get constant phase result.

                 deghost=<value>
                      Set the deghosting threshold (0-255 for one
                      pass mode, -255-255 for two pass mode,  de-
                      fault  0).   If nonzero, deghosting mode is
                      used.  This is  for  video  that  has  been
                      deinterlaced by blending the fields togeth-
                      er instead of dropping one of  the  fields.
                      Deghosting  amplifies any compression arti-
                      facts in the blended frames, so the parame-
                      ter value is used as a threshold to exclude
                      those pixels from  deghosting  that  differ
                      from the previous frame less than specified
                      value.  If two pass mode is used, then neg-
                      ative  value can be used to make the filter
                      analyze the whole video in the beginning of
                      pass-2   to   determine  whether  it  needs
                      deghosting or not and  then  select  either
                      zero  or  the absolute value of the parame-
                      ter.  Specify this option  for  pass-2,  it
                      makes no difference on pass-1.

       phase[=t|b|p|a|u|T|B|A|U][:v]
              Delay  interlaced  video  by one field time so that
              the field order changes.  The intended  use  is  to
              fix PAL movies that have been captured with the op-
              posite field order to the  film-to-video  transfer.
              The options are:



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                 t    Capture  field  order  top-first,  transfer
                      bottom-first.  Filter will delay the bottom
                      field.

                 b    Capture  bottom-first,  transfer top-first.
                      Filter will delay the top field.

                 p    Capture and transfer with  the  same  field
                      order.  This mode only exists for the docu-
                      mentation of the other options to refer to,
                      but  if  you actually select it, the filter
                      will faithfully do nothing ;-)

                 a    Capture field order determined automatical-
                      ly by field flags, transfer opposite.  Fil-
                      ter selects among t and b modes on a  frame
                      by  frame  basis  using field flags.  If no
                      field information is available,  then  this
                      works just like u.

                 u    Capture  unknown or varying, transfer oppo-
                      site.  Filter selects among t and  b  on  a
                      frame  by  frame basis by analyzing the im-
                      ages and  selecting  the  alternative  that
                      produces best match between the fields.

                 T    Capture   top-first,  transfer  unknown  or
                      varying.  Filter selects among t and p  us-
                      ing image analysis.

                 B    Capture  bottom-first,  transfer unknown or
                      varying.  Filter selects among b and p  us-
                      ing image analysis.

                 A    Capture determined by field flags, transfer
                      unknown or varying.  Filter  selects  among
                      t,  b  and  p  using  field flags and image
                      analysis.   If  no  field  information   is
                      available,  then  this  works  just like U.
                      This is the default mode.

                 U    Both capture and transfer unknown or  vary-
                      ing.  Filter selects among t, b and p using
                      image analysis only.

                 v    Verbose  operation.   Prints  the  selected
                      mode for each frame and the average squared
                      difference between fields for t, b,  and  p
                      alternatives.

       telecine[=start]
              Apply  3:2 'telecine' process to increase framerate
              by 20%.  This most likely will not  work  correctly
              with  MPlayer,  but  it  can be used with 'mencoder



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              -fps 30000/1001  -ofps  30000/1001  -vf  telecine'.
              Both  fps  options  are  essential!  (A/V sync will
              break if they are wrong.)  The optional  start  pa-
              rameter tells the filter where in the telecine pat-
              tern to start (0-3).

       tinterlace[=mode]
              Temporal field interlacing - merge pairs of  frames
              into  an  interlaced  frame, halving the framerate.
              Even frames are moved into  the  upper  field,  odd
              frames  to  the  lower  field.  This can be used to
              fully reverse the effect of the tfields filter  (in
              mode 0).  Available modes are:
                 0    Move  odd frames into the upper field, even
                      into the lower field,  generating  a  full-
                      height frame at half framerate.
                 1    Only  output  odd  frames,  even frames are
                      dropped; height unchanged.
                 2    Only output even  frames,  odd  frames  are
                      dropped; height unchanged.
                 3    Expand  each  frame to full height, but pad
                      alternate lines with black;  framerate  un-
                      changed.
                 4    Interleave even lines from even frames with
                      odd lines  from  odd  frames.   Height  un-
                      changed at half framerate.

       tfields[=mode[:field_dominance]]
              Temporal  field  separation  -  split  fields  into
              frames, doubling the output  framerate.   Like  the
              telecine  filter,  tfields  will only work properly
              with MEncoder, and only if both -fps and -ofps  are
              set to the desired (double) framerate!
                 <mode>
                      0:    Leave    fields    unchanged    (will
                      jump/:flicker).
                      1: Interpolate missing  lines.  (The  algo-
                      rithm used might not be so good.)
                      2:  Translate fields by 1/4 pixel with lin-
                      ear interpolation (no jump).
                      4: Translate fields by 1/4 pixel with  4tap
                      filter (higher quality) (default).
                 <field_dominance> (DEPRECATED)
                      -1:  auto  (default)  Only works if the de-
                      coder exports the  appropriate  information
                      and no other filters which discard that in-
                      formation come before tfields in the filter
                      chain,  otherwise  it  falls back to 0 (top
                      field first).
                      0: top field first
                      1: bottom field first
                      NOTE: This option will possibly be  removed
                      in  a future version.  Use -field-dominance
                      instead.



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       yadif=[mode[:field_dominance]]
              Yet another deinterlacing filter
                 <mode>
                      0: Output 1 frame for each frame.
                      1: Output 1 frame for each field.
                      2: Like 0  but  skips  spatial  interlacing
                      check.
                      3:  Like  1  but  skips spatial interlacing
                      check.
                 <field_dominance> (DEPRECATED)
                      Operates like tfields.
                      NOTE: This option will possibly be  removed
                      in  a future version.  Use -field-dominance
                      instead.

       mcdeint=[mode[:parity[:qp]]]
              Motion compensating  deinterlacer.   It  needs  one
              field  per frame as input and must thus be used to-
              gether with tfields=1 or yadif=1/3 or equivalent.
                 <mode>
                      0: fast
                      1: medium
                      2: slow, iterative motion estimation
                      3: extra slow, like 2 plus multiple  refer-
                      ence frames
                 <parity>
                      0 or 1 selects which field to use (note: no
                      autodetection yet!).
                 <qp>
                      Higher values should result in  a  smoother
                      motion  vector field but less optimal indi-
                      vidual vectors.

       boxblur=radius:power[:radius:power]
              box blur
                 <radius>
                      blur filter strength
                 <power>
                      number of filter applications

       sab=radius:pf:colorDiff[:radius:pf:colorDiff]
              shape adaptive blur
                 <radius>
                      blur filter strength (~0.1-4.0) (slower  if
                      larger)
                 <pf>
                      prefilter strength (~0.1-2.0)
                 <colorDiff>
                      maximum  difference between pixels to still
                      be considered (~0.1-100.0)

       smartblur=radius:strength:threshold[:ra-
       dius:strength:threshold]
              smart blur



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                 <radius>
                      blur  filter strength (~0.1-5.0) (slower if
                      larger)
                 <strength>
                      blur (0.0-1.0) or sharpen (-1.0-0.0)
                 <threshold>
                      filter all (0), filter flat areas (0-30) or
                      filter edges (-30-0)

       perspective=x0:y0:x1:y1:x2:y2:x3:y3:t
              Correct  the  perspective of movies not filmed per-
              pendicular to the screen.
                 <x0>,<y0>,...
                      coordinates of the  top  left,  top  right,
                      bottom left, bottom right corners
                 <t>
                      linear (0) or cubic resampling (1)

       2xsai
              Scale  and  smooth  the image with the 2x scale and
              interpolate algorithm.

       1bpp
              1bpp bitmap to YUV/:BGR 8/:15/:16/:32 conversion

       down3dright[=lines]
              Reposition and  resize  stereoscopic  images.   Ex-
              tracts  both  stereo fields and places them side by
              side, resizing them to maintain the original  movie
              aspect.
                 <lines>
                      number  of  lines to select from the middle
                      of the image (default: 12)

       bmovl=hidden:opaque:fifo
              The bitmap overlay filter reads bitmaps from a FIFO
              and  displays  them  on  top of the movie, allowing
              some  transformations  on  the  image.   Also   see
              TOOLS/bmovl-test.c  for a small bmovl test program.
                 <hidden>
                      Set the default value of the 'hidden'  flag
                      (0=visible, 1=hidden).
                 <opaque>
                      Set  the default value of the 'opaque' flag
                      (0=transparent, 1=opaque).
                 <fifo>
                      path/:filename for  the  FIFO  (named  pipe
                      connecting  'mplayer -vf bmovl' to the con-
                      trolling application)

              FIFO commands are:
                 RGBA32 width height xpos ypos alpha clear
                      followed by width*height*4 Bytes of raw RG-
                      BA32 data.



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                 ABGR32 width height xpos ypos alpha clear
                      followed by width*height*4 Bytes of raw AB-
                      GR32 data.
                 RGB24 width height xpos ypos alpha clear
                      followed by  width*height*3  Bytes  of  raw
                      RGB24 data.
                 BGR24 width height xpos ypos alpha clear
                      followed  by  width*height*3  Bytes  of raw
                      BGR24 data.
                 ALPHA width height xpos ypos alpha
                      Change alpha transparency of the  specified
                      area.
                 CLEAR width height xpos ypos
                      Clear area.
                 OPAQUE
                      Disable  all alpha transparency.  Send "AL-
                      PHA 0 0 0 0 0" to enable it again.
                 HIDE
                      Hide bitmap.
                 SHOW
                      Show bitmap.

              Arguments are:
                 <width>, <height>
                      image/area size
                 <xpos>, <ypos>
                      Start blitting at position x/y.
                 <alpha>
                      Set alpha difference.  If you set  this  to
                      -255 you can then send a sequence of ALPHA-
                      commands to set the  area  to  -225,  -200,
                      -175 etc for a nice fade-in-effect! ;)
                         0:    same as original
                         255:  Make everything opaque.
                         -255: Make everything transparent.

                 <clear>
                      Clear the framebuffer before blitting.
                         0: The image will just be blitted on top
                         of the old one, so you do  not  need  to
                         send  1.8MB  of RGBA32 data every time a
                         small part of the screen is updated.
                         1: clear

       framestep=I|[i]step
              Renders only every nth frame or every  intra  frame
              (keyframe).

              If  you  call  the filter with I (uppercase) as the
              parameter, then only keyframes are  rendered.   For
              DVDs  it  generally means one in every 15/12 frames
              (IBBPBBPBBPBBPBB), for AVI  it  means  every  scene
              change or every keyint value (see -lavcopts keyint=
              value if you use MEncoder to encode the video).



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              When a keyframe is found, an 'I!'  string  followed
              by a newline character is printed, leaving the cur-
              rent  line  of  MPlayer/:MEncoder  output  on   the
              screen,  because  it contains the time (in seconds)
              and frame number of the keyframe (You can use  this
              information to split the AVI.).

              If  you  call  the  filter with a numeric parameter
              'step' then only one in every 'step' frames is ren-
              dered.

              If  you  put  an  'i' (lowercase) before the number
              then an 'I!' is printed (like the I parameter).

              If you give only the i then nothing is done to  the
              frames, only I! is printed.

       tile=xtiles:ytiles:output:start:delta
              Tile  a  series of images into a single, bigger im-
              age.  If you omit a parameter or use a  value  less
              than  0,  then  the default value is used.  You can
              also stop when you are satisfied (... -vf tile=10:5
              ...).   It is probably a good idea to put the scale
              filter before the tile :-)

              The parameters are:

                 <xtiles>
                      number of tiles on the x axis (default: 5)
                 <ytiles>
                      number of tiles on the y axis (default: 5)
                 <output>
                      Render the tile  when  'output'  number  of
                      frames  are  reached, where 'output' should
                      be a number less than xtile * ytile.  Miss-
                      ing  tiles  are left blank.  You could, for
                      example, write an  8  *  7  tile  every  50
                      frames  to have one image every 2 seconds @
                      25 fps.
                 <start>
                      outer border thickness in pixels  (default:
                      2)
                 <delta>
                      inner  border thickness in pixels (default:
                      4)

       delogo[=x:y:w:h:t]
              Suppresses a TV station logo by a simple interpola-
              tion of the surrounding pixels.  Just set a rectan-
              gle covering the logo and watch it  disappear  (and
              sometimes  something  even  uglier  appear  -  your
              mileage may vary).
                 <x>,<y>
                      top left corner of the logo



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                 <w>,<h>
                      width and height of the cleared rectangle
                 <t>  Thickness of the fuzzy edge of the  rectan-
                      gle  (added to w and h).  When set to -1, a
                      green rectangle is drawn on the  screen  to
                      simplify  finding the right x,y,w,h parame-
                      ters.

       remove-logo=/path/to/logo_bitmap_file_name.pgm
              Suppresses a TV station logo, using a  PGM  or  PPM
              image  file  to determine which pixels comprise the
              logo.  The width and height of the image file  must
              match  those  of  the video stream being processed.
              Uses the filter image and a circular blur algorithm
              to remove the logo.

                 /path/to/logo_bitmap_file_name.pgm
                      [path] + filename of the filter image.

       zrmjpeg[=options]
              Software YV12 to MJPEG encoder for use with the zr2
              video output device.

                 maxheight=<h>|maxwidth=<w>
                      These options set  the  maximum  width  and
                      height  the zr card can handle (the MPlayer
                      filter layer currently cannot query those).

                 {dc10+,dc10,buz,lml33}-{PAL|NTSC}
                      Use  these options to set maxwidth and max-
                      height automatically to  the  values  known
                      for  card/:mode  combo.  For example, valid
                      options are:  dc10-PAL  and  buz-NTSC  (de-
                      fault: dc10+PAL)

                 color|bw
                      Select  color  or black and white encoding.
                      Black and white encoding is faster.   Color
                      is the default.

                 hdec={1,2,4}
                      Horizontal decimation 1, 2 or 4.

                 vdec={1,2,4}
                      Vertical decimation 1, 2 or 4.

                 quality=1-20
                      Set  JPEG compression quality [BEST] 1 - 20
                      [VERY BAD].

                 fd|nofd
                      By default, decimation is only performed if
                      the  Zoran hardware can upscale the result-
                      ing MJPEG images to the original size.  The



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                      option  fd  instructs  the filter to always
                      perform the requested decimation (ugly).

       screenshot
              Allows acquiring screenshots  of  the  movie  using
              slave  mode commands that can be bound to keypress-
              es.  See the slave mode documentation and  the  IN-
              TERACTIVE CONTROL section for details.  Files named
              'shotNNNN.png' will be saved in the working  direc-
              tory,  using  the first available number - no files
              will be overwritten.  The filter  has  no  overhead
              when  not used and accepts an arbitrary colorspace,
              so it is safe to add it to the configuration  file.

       ass
              Moves  SSA/ASS  subtitle  rendering to an arbitrary
              point in the filter chain.  Only  useful  with  the
              -ass option.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -vf ass,screenshot
                      Moves  SSA/ASS rendering before the screen-
                      shot filter.  Screenshots  taken  this  way
                      will contain subtitles.

       blackframe[=amount:threshold]
              Detect  frames  that are (almost) completely black.
              Can be useful to detect chapter transitions or com-
              mercials.  Output lines consist of the frame number
              of the detected frame, the percentage of blackness,
              the frame type and the frame number of the last en-
              countered keyframe.

                 <amount>
                      Percentage of the pixels that  have  to  be
                      below the threshold (default: 98).

                 <threshold>
                      Threshold below which a pixel value is con-
                      sidered black (default: 32).

GENERAL ENCODING OPTIONS (MENCODER ONLY)
       -audio-delay <any floating-point number>
              Delays either audio or video  by  setting  a  delay
              field  in the header (default: 0.0).  This does not
              delay either stream while encoding, but the  player
              will  see the delay field and compensate according-
              ly.  Positive values delay the audio, and  negative
              values  delay the video.  Note that this is the ex-
              act opposite of the -delay option.  For example, if
              a  video  plays  correctly with -delay 0.2, you can
              fix the video with MEncoder by  using  -audio-delay
              -0.2.




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              Currently,  this option only works with the default
              muxer (-of avi).  If you are using a different mux-
              er, then you must use -delay instead.

       -audio-density <1-50>
              Number of audio chunks per second (default is 2 for
              0.5s long audio chunks).
              NOTE: CBR only, VBR ignores this as  it  puts  each
              packet in a new chunk.

       -audio-preload <0.0-2.0>
              Sets up the audio buffering time interval (default:
              0.5s).

       -fafmttag <format>
              Can be used to override the audio format tag of the
              output file.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -fafmttag 0x55
                      Will  have  the  output  file  contain 0x55
                      (mp3) as audio format tag.

       -ffourcc <fourcc>
              Can be used to override the  video  fourcc  of  the
              output file.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -ffourcc div3
                      Will have the output file contain 'div3' as
                      video fourcc.

       -force-avi-aspect <0.2-3.0>
              Override the aspect stored in the AVI OpenDML  vprp
              header.   This can be used to change the aspect ra-
              tio with '-ovc copy'.

       -frameno-file <filename> (DEPRECATED)
              Specify the name of the audio file with framenumber
              mappings  created in the first (audio only) pass of
              a special three pass encoding mode.
              NOTE: Using this mode will most likely give you A-V
              desync.   Do  not use it.  It is kept for backwards
              compatibility only and will possibly be removed  in
              a future version.

       -hr-edl-seek
              Use  a  more  precise,  but  much slower method for
              skipping areas.  Areas marked for skipping are  not
              seeked  over,  instead  all frames are decoded, but
              only the necessary frames are encoded.  This allows
              starting at non-keyframe boundaries.
              NOTE:  Not  guaranteed  to  work  right  with '-ovc
              copy'.



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       -info <option1:option2:...> (AVI only)
              Specify the info header of the resulting AVI  file.

              Available options are:

                 help
                      Show this description.

                 name=<value>
                      title of the work

                 artist=<value>
                      artist or author of the work

                 genre=<value>
                      original work category

                 subject=<value>
                      contents of the work

                 copyright=<value>
                      copyright information

                 srcform=<value>
                      original format of the digitized material

                 comment=<value>
                      general comments about the work

       -noautoexpand
              Do  not automatically insert the expand filter into
              the MEncoder filter chain.  Useful  to  control  at
              which  point of the filter chain subtitles are ren-
              dered when hardcoding subtitles onto a movie.

       -noencodedups
              Do not attempt to encode duplicate frames in dupli-
              cate;  always  output  zero-byte frames to indicate
              duplicates.  Zero-byte frames will be written  any-
              way unless a filter or encoder capable of doing du-
              plicate encoding is  loaded.   Currently  the  only
              such filter is harddup.

       -noodml (-of avi only)
              Do not write OpenDML index for AVI files >1GB.

       -noskip
              Do not skip frames.

       -o <filename>
              Outputs to the given filename.
              If  you want a default output filename, you can put
              this option in the MEncoder config file.




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       -oac <codec name>
              Encode with the given audio codec (no default set).
              NOTE:  Use -oac help to get a list of available au-
              dio codecs.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -oac copy
                      no encoding, just streamcopy
                 -oac pcm
                      Encode to uncompressed PCM.
                 -oac mp3lame
                      Encode to MP3 (using LAME).
                 -oac lavc
                      Encode with a libavcodec codec.

       -of <format> (BETA CODE!)
              Encode to the specified container format  (default:
              AVI).
              NOTE:  Use -of help to get a list of available con-
              tainer formats.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -of avi
                      Encode to AVI.
                 -of mpeg
                      Encode to MPEG (also see -mpegopts).
                 -of lavf
                      Encode with libavformat  muxers  (also  see
                      -lavfopts).
                 -of rawvideo
                      raw  video  stream  (no  muxing - one video
                      stream only)
                 -of rawaudio
                      raw audio stream (no  muxing  -  one  audio
                      stream only)

       -ofps <fps>
              Specify  a  frames  per  second (fps) value for the
              output file, which can be different  from  that  of
              the  source material.  Must be set for variable fps
              (ASF, some MOV)  and  progressive  (30000/1001  fps
              telecined MPEG) files.

       -ovc <codec name>
              Encode with the given video codec (no default set).
              NOTE: Use -ovc help to  get  a  list  of  available
              video codecs.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -ovc copy
                      no encoding, just streamcopy
                 -ovc raw
                      Encode  to an arbitrary uncompressed format
                      (use '-vf format' to select).



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                 -ovc lavc
                      Encode with a libavcodec codec.

       -passlogfile <filename>
              Dump first pass information to  <filename>  instead
              of  the  default divx2pass.log in two pass encoding
              mode.

       -skiplimit <value>
              Specify the maximum number of frames  that  may  be
              skipped  after encoding one frame (-noskiplimit for
              unlimited).

       -vobsubout <basename>
              Specify the basename for the output .idx  and  .sub
              files.   This  turns  off subtitle rendering in the
              encoded movie and diverts  it  to  VOBsub  subtitle
              files.

       -vobsuboutid <langid>
              Specify the language two letter code for the subti-
              tles.  This overrides what is read from the DVD  or
              the .ifo file.

       -vobsuboutindex <index>
              Specify  the  index  of the subtitles in the output
              files (default: 0).

CODEC SPECIFIC ENCODING OPTIONS (MENCODER ONLY)
       You can specify codec specific encoding  parameters  using
       the following syntax:

       -<codec>opts <option1[=value],option2,...>

       Where  <codec>  may  be:  lavc,  xvidenc,  lame,  toolame,
       twolame, nuv, xvfw, faac, x264enc, mpeg, lavf.

   lame (-lameopts)
       help
              get help

       vbr=<0-4>
              variable bitrate method
                 0    cbr
                 1    mt
                 2    rh (default)
                 3    abr
                 4    mtrh

       abr
              average bitrate

       cbr
              constant bitrate Also forces CBR mode  encoding  on



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              subsequent ABR presets modes.

       br=<0-1024>
              bitrate in kbps (CBR and ABR only)

       q=<0-9>
              quality (0 - highest, 9 - lowest) (VBR only)

       aq=<0-9>
              algorithmic   quality   (0   -  best/slowest,  9  -
              worst/fastest)

       ratio=<1-100>
              compression ratio

       vol=<0-10>
              audio input gain

       mode=<0-3>
              (default: auto)
                 0    stereo
                 1    joint-stereo
                 2    dualchannel
                 3    mono

       padding=<0-2>
                 0    none
                 1    all
                 2    adjust

       fast
              Switch on faster encoding on subsequent VBR presets
              modes.   This results in slightly lower quality and
              higher bitrates.

       highpassfreq=<freq>
              Set a highpass filtering frequency in Hz.  Frequen-
              cies  below  the  specified one will be cut off.  A
              value of -1 will disable filtering, a  value  of  0
              will let LAME choose values automatically.

       lowpassfreq=<freq>
              Set  a lowpass filtering frequency in Hz.  Frequen-
              cies above the specified one will be  cut  off.   A
              value  of  -1  will disable filtering, a value of 0
              will let LAME choose values automatically.

       preset=<value>
              preset values

                 help
                      Print additional  options  and  information
                      about presets settings.




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                 medium
                      VBR  encoding,  good  quality, 150-180 kbps
                      bitrate range

                 standard
                      VBR encoding, high  quality,  170-210  kbps
                      bitrate range

                 extreme
                      VBR  encoding,  very  high quality, 200-240
                      kbps bitrate range

                 insane
                      CBR encoding, highest preset  quality,  320
                      kbps bitrate

                 <8-320>
                      ABR encoding at average given kbps bitrate

              EXAMPLES:
                 fast:preset=standard
                      suitable  for  most  people  and most music
                      types and already quite high quality
                 cbr:preset=192
                      Encode with  ABR  presets  at  a  192  kbps
                      forced constant bitrate.
                 preset=172
                      Encode with ABR presets at a 172 kbps aver-
                      age bitrate.
                 preset=extreme
                      for people with extremely good hearing  and
                      similar equipment

   toolame and twolame (-toolameopts and -twolameopts respective-
       ly)
       br=<32-384>
              In CBR mode this parameter indicates the bitrate in
              kbps,  when  in  VBR mode it is the minimum bitrate
              allowed per frame.  VBR mode will not work  with  a
              value below 112.

       vbr=<-50-50> (VBR only)
              variability  range;  if negative the encoder shifts
              the average bitrate towards  the  lower  limit,  if
              positive  towards the higher.  When set to 0 CBR is
              used (default).

       maxvbr=<32-384> (VBR only)
              maximum bitrate allowed per frame, in kbps

       mode=<stereo | jstereo | mono | dual>
              (default: mono for 1-channel audio,  stereo  other-
              wise)




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       psy=<-1-4>
              psychoacoustic model (default: 2)

       errprot=<0 | 1>
              Include error protection.

       debug=<0-10>
              debug level

   faac (-faacopts)
       br=<bitrate>
              average  bitrate  in  kbps (mutually exclusive with
              quality)

       quality=<1-1000>
              quality mode, the higher the better  (mutually  ex-
              clusive with br)

       object=<1-4>
              object type complexity
                 1    MAIN (default)
                 2    LOW
                 3    SSR
                 4    LTP (extremely slow)

       mpeg=<2|4>
              MPEG version (default: 4)

       tns
              Enables temporal noise shaping.

       cutoff=<0-sampling_rate/2>
              cutoff frequency (default: sampling_rate/2)

       raw
              Stores  the bitstream as raw payload with extradata
              in the container header (default: 0, corresponds to
              ADTS).   Do not set this flag if not explicitly re-
              quired or you will not be able to remux  the  audio
              stream later on.

   lavc (-lavcopts)
       Many libavcodec (lavc for short) options are tersely docu-
       mented.  Read the source for full details.

       EXAMPLE:
                 vcodec=msmpeg4:vbitrate=1800:vhq:keyint=250

       acodec=<value>
              audio codec (default: mp2)
                 ac3
                      Dolby Digital (AC-3)
                 adpcm_*
                      Adaptive PCM formats - see the  HTML  docu-



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                      mentation for details.
                 flac
                      Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC)
                 g726
                      G.726 ADPCM
                 libamr_nb
                      3GPP Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) narrow-band
                 libamr_wb
                      3GPP Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) wide-band
                 libfaac
                      Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) - using FAAC
                 libmp3lame
                      MPEG-1 audio layer 3 (MP3) - using LAME
                 mp2
                      MPEG-1 audio layer 2 (MP2)
                 pcm_*
                      PCM  formats  -  see the HTML documentation
                      for details.
                 roq_dpcm
                      Id Software RoQ DPCM
                 sonic
                      experimental simple lossy codec
                 sonicls
                      experimental simple lossless codec
                 vorbis
                      Vorbis
                 wmav1
                      Windows Media Audio v1
                 wmav2
                      Windows Media Audio v2

       abitrate=<value>
              audio bitrate in kbps (default: 224)

       atag=<value>
              Use the specified Windows audio  format  tag  (e.g.
              atag=0x55).

       bit_exact
              Use only bit exact algorithms (except (I)DCT).  Ad-
              ditionally bit_exact disables several optimizations
              and  thus should only be used for regression tests,
              which need binary identical files even if  the  en-
              coder  version  changes.   This also suppresses the
              user_data header in MPEG-4  streams.   Do  not  use
              this  option  unless  you know exactly what you are
              doing.

       threads=<1-8>
              Maximum number of threads to use (default: 1).  May
              have a slight negative effect on motion estimation.

       vcodec=<value>
              Employ the specified codec (default: mpeg4).



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                 asv1
                      ASUS Video v1
                 asv2
                      ASUS Video v2
                 dvvideo
                      Sony Digital Video
                 ffv1
                      FFmpeg's lossless video codec
                 ffvhuff
                      nonstandard 20% smaller HuffYUV using YV12
                 flv
                      Sorenson H.263 used in Flash Video
                 h261
                      H.261
                 h263
                      H.263
                 h263p
                      H.263+
                 huffyuv
                      HuffYUV
                 libtheora
                      Theora
                 libx264
                      x264 H.264/AVC MPEG-4 Part 10
                 libxvid
                      Xvid MPEG-4 Part 2 (ASP)
                 ljpeg
                      Lossless JPEG
                 mjpeg
                      Motion JPEG
                 mpeg1video
                      MPEG-1 video
                 mpeg2video
                      MPEG-2 video
                 mpeg4
                      MPEG-4 (DivX 4/5)
                 msmpeg4
                      DivX 3
                 msmpeg4v2
                      MS MPEG4v2
                 roqvideo
                      ID Software RoQ Video
                 rv10
                      an old RealVideo codec
                 snow (also see: vstrict)
                      FFmpeg's experimental wavelet-based codec
                 svq1
                      Apple Sorenson Video 1
                 wmv1
                      Windows Media Video, version 1 (AKA WMV7)
                 wmv2
                      Windows Media Video, version 2 (AKA WMV8)





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       vqmin=<1-31>
              minimum quantizer (pass 1/2)

                 1    Not recommended (much larger  file,  little
                      quality  difference and weird side effects:
                      msmpeg4, h263 will  be  very  low  quality,
                      ratecontrol  will  be confused resulting in
                      lower quality and some decoders will not be
                      able to decode it).

                 2    Recommended  for  normal  mpeg4/:mpeg1video
                      encoding (default).

                 3    Recommended for h263(p)/:msmpeg4.  The rea-
                      son for preferring 3 over 2 is that 2 could
                      lead to overflows.  (This will be fixed for
                      h263(p) by changing the quantizer per MB in
                      the future, msmpeg4 cannot be fixed  as  it
                      does not support that.)

       lmin=<0.01-255.0>
              Minimum  frame-level  Lagrange multiplier for rate-
              control (default: 2.0).  Lavc will rarely use quan-
              tizers below the value of lmin.  Lowering lmin will
              make lavc more likely to  choose  lower  quantizers
              for  some  frames,  but not lower than the value of
              vqmin.  Likewise, raising lmin will make lavc  less
              likely  to  choose  low  quantizers,  even if vqmin
              would have allowed them.  You probably want to  set
              lmin  approximately  equal to vqmin.  When adaptive
              quantization is in use, changing lmin/lmax may have
              less of an effect; see mblmin/mblmax.

       lmax=<0.01-255.0>
              maximum  Lagrange  multiplier  for ratecontrol (de-
              fault: 31.0)

       mblmin=<0.01-255.0>
              Minimum macroblock-level  Lagrange  multiplier  for
              ratecontrol  (default:2.0).  This parameter affects
              adaptive quantization options like qprd, lumi_mask,
              etc..

       mblmax=<0.01-255.0>
              Maximum  macroblock-level  Lagrange  multiplier for
              ratecontrol (default: 31.0).

       vqscale=<0-31>
              Constant quantizer  /:  constant  quality  encoding
              (selects  fixed  quantizer  mode).   A  lower value
              means better quality  but  larger  files  (default:
              -1).  In case of snow codec, value 0 means lossless
              encoding.  Since the other codecs  do  not  support
              this,  vqscale=0  will have an undefined effect.  1



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              is not recommended (see vqmin for details).

       vqmax=<1-31>
              Maximum quantizer (pass 1/2),  10-31  should  be  a
              sane range (default: 31).

       mbqmin=<1-31>
              obsolete, use vqmin

       mbqmax=<1-31>
              obsolete, use vqmax

       vqdiff=<1-31>
              maximum quantizer difference between consecutive I-
              or P-frames (pass 1/2) (default: 3)

       vmax_b_frames=<0-4>
              maximum number of B-frames between non-B-frames:
                 0    no B-frames (default)
                 0-2  sane range for MPEG-4

       vme=<0-5>
              motion estimation method.  Available methods are:
                 0    none (very low quality)
                 1    full (slow, currently unmaintained and dis-
                      abled)
                 2    log  (low  quality,  currently unmaintained
                      and disabled)
                 3    phods (low quality, currently  unmaintained
                      and disabled)
                 4    EPZS:  size=1 diamond, size can be adjusted
                      with the *dia options (default)
                 5    X1  (experimental,  currently  aliased   to
                      EPZS)
                 8    iter (iterative overlapped block, only used
                      in snow)

              NOTE: 0-3 currently  ignores  the  amount  of  bits
              spent, so quality may be low.

       me_range=<0-9999>
              motion  estimation search range (default: 0 (unlim-
              ited))

       mbd=<0-2> (see also *cmp, qpel)
              Macroblock decision algorithm (high quality  mode),
              encode each macro block in all modes and choose the
              best.  This is slow but results in  better  quality
              and file size.  When mbd is set to 1 or 2, the val-
              ue of mbcmp is ignored when comparing  macroblocks.
              If  any comparison setting (precmp, subcmp, cmp, or
              mbcmp) is nonzero, however,  a  slower  but  better
              half-pel  motion search will be used, regardless of
              what mbd is set to.  If qpel  is  set,  quarter-pel



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              motion search will be used regardless.
                 0    Use comparison function given by mbcmp (de-
                      fault).
                 1    Select the MB mode which needs  the  fewest
                      bits (=vhq).
                 2    Select  the MB mode which has the best rate
                      distortion.

       vhq
              Same as mbd=1, kept for compatibility reasons.

       v4mv
              Allow 4 motion  vectors  per  macroblock  (slightly
              better  quality).  Works better if used with mbd>0.

       obmc
              overlapped block motion compensation (H.263+)

       loop
              loop filter (H.263+) note, this is broken

       inter_threshold <-1000-1000>
              Does absolutely nothing at the moment.

       keyint=<0-300>
              maximum interval between keyframes in  frames  (de-
              fault:  250  or one keyframe every ten seconds in a
              25fps movie.  This is the recommended  default  for
              MPEG-4).   Most codecs require regular keyframes in
              order to limit the accumulation of mismatch  error.
              Keyframes  are  also needed for seeking, as seeking
              is only possible to a keyframe - but keyframes need
              more  space  than  other  frames, so larger numbers
              here mean slightly smaller files but  less  precise
              seeking.   0  is equivalent to 1, which makes every
              frame a keyframe.  Values >300 are not  recommended
              as the quality might be bad depending upon decoder,
              encoder and luck.  It is a common for  MPEG-1/2  to
              use values <=30.

       sc_threshold=<-1000000000-1000000000>
              Threshold  for  scene change detection.  A keyframe
              is inserted by libavcodec when it detects  a  scene
              change.  You can specify the sensitivity of the de-
              tection with this option.  -1000000000 means  there
              is   a   scene  change  detected  at  every  frame,
              1000000000 means no scene changes are detected (de-
              fault: 0).

       sc_factor=<any positive integer>
              Causes  frames  with  higher  quantizers to be more
              likely to trigger a scene change detection and make
              libavcodec  use an I-frame (default: 1).  1-16 is a
              sane range.  Values between 2 and 6 may  yield  in-



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              creasing  PSNR  (up  to  approximately 0.04 dB) and
              better placement of I-frames in high-motion scenes.
              Higher  values than 6 may give very slightly better
              PSNR (approximately 0.01 dB more than sc_factor=6),
              but noticably worse visual quality.

       vb_strategy=<0-2> (pass one only)
              strategy to choose between I/P/B-frames:
                 0    Always  use  the maximum number of B-frames
                      (default).
                 1    Avoid B-frames in high motion scenes.   See
                      the   b_sensitivity  option  to  tune  this
                      strategy.
                 2    Places B-frames more or less  optimally  to
                      yield  maximum  quality  (slower).  You may
                      want to reduce the speed impact of this op-
                      tion by tuning the option brd_scale.

       b_sensitivity=<any integer greater than 0>
              Adjusts  how  sensitively vb_strategy=1 detects mo-
              tion and avoids using B-frames (default: 40).  Low-
              er sensitivities will result in more B-frames.  Us-
              ing more B-frames usually improves  PSNR,  but  too
              many  B-frames  can  hurt  quality  in  high-motion
              scenes.  Unless there is an extremely  high  amount
              of  motion, b_sensitivity can safely be lowered be-
              low the default; 10 is a reasonable value  in  most
              cases.

       brd_scale=<0-10>
              Downscales frames for dynamic B-frame decision (de-
              fault: 0).  Each time  brd_scale  is  increased  by
              one, the frame dimensions are divided by two, which
              improves speed by a factor of  four.   Both  dimen-
              sions  of  the  fully downscaled frame must be even
              numbers, so brd_scale=1 requires the  original  di-
              mensions  to  be multiples of four, brd_scale=2 re-
              quires multiples of eight, etc.   In  other  words,
              the  dimensions  of the original frame must both be
              divisible by 2^(brd_scale+1) with no remainder.

       bidir_refine=<0-4>
              Refine the two motion vectors used in bidirectional
              macroblocks,  rather than re-using vectors from the
              forward and backward searches.  This option has  no
              effect without B-frames.
                 0    Disabled (default).
                 1-4  Use a wider search (larger values are slow-
                      er).

       vpass=<1-3>
              Activates internal two (or more)  pass  mode,  only
              specify  if  you wish to use two (or more) pass en-
              coding.



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                 1    first pass (also see turbo)
                 2    second pass
                 3    Nth pass (second and subsequent  passes  of
                      N-pass encoding)
              Here is how it works, and how to use it:
              The  first  pass  (vpass=1)  writes  the statistics
              file.  You might want to deactivate some CPU-hungry
              options, like "turbo" mode does.
              In  two  pass mode, the second pass (vpass=2) reads
              the statistics file and bases ratecontrol decisions
              on it.
              In  N-pass  mode, the second pass (vpass=3, that is
              not a typo) does both: It first reads  the  statis-
              tics,  then  overwrites  them.   You  might want to
              backup divx2pass.log before doing this if there  is
              any  possibility  that you will have to cancel MEn-
              coder.  You can use all  encoding  options,  except
              very CPU-hungry options like "qns".
              You  can run this same pass over and over to refine
              the encode.  Each  subsequent  pass  will  use  the
              statistics  from the previous pass to improve.  The
              final pass can include any CPU-hungry encoding  op-
              tions.
              If you want a 2 pass encode, use first vpass=1, and
              then vpass=2.
              If you want a 3 or more pass  encode,  use  vpass=1
              for  the  first  pass  and  then  vpass=3  and then
              vpass=3 again and again  until  you  are  satisfied
              with the encode.

              huffyuv:
                 pass 1
                      Saves statistics.
                 pass 2
                      Encodes with an optimal Huffman table based
                      upon statistics from the first pass.

       turbo (two pass only)
              Dramatically speeds up pass one using faster  algo-
              rithms  and  disabling CPU-intensive options.  This
              will probably  reduce  global  PSNR  a  little  bit
              (around  0.01dB)  and  change individual frame type
              and PSNR a little bit more (up to 0.03dB).

       aspect=<x/y>
              Store movie aspect internally, just like with  MPEG
              files.   Much nicer than rescaling, because quality
              is not decreased.  Only  MPlayer  will  play  these
              files  correctly,  other  players will display them
              with wrong aspect.  The  aspect  parameter  can  be
              given as a ratio or a floating point number.

              EXAMPLE:




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                 aspect=16/9 or aspect=1.78

       autoaspect
              Same  as  the aspect option, but automatically com-
              putes aspect, taking into account all  the  adjust-
              ments  (crop/:expand/:scale/:etc.) made in the fil-
              ter chain.  Does not incur a  performance  penalty,
              so you can safely leave it always on.

       vbitrate=<value>
              Specify bitrate (pass 1/2) (default: 800).
              WARNING: 1kbit = 1000 bits
                 4-16000
                      (in kbit)
                 16001-24000000
                      (in bit)

       vratetol=<value>
              approximated   file   size   tolerance   in   kbit.
              1000-100000 is a sane  range.   (warning:  1kbit  =
              1000 bits) (default: 8000)
              NOTE:  vratetol  should not be too large during the
              second  pass  or  there  might   be   problems   if
              vrc_(min|max)rate is used.

       vrc_maxrate=<value>
              maximum  bitrate  in kbit/:sec (pass 1/2) (default:
              0, unlimited)

       vrc_minrate=<value>
              minimum bitrate in kbit/:sec (pass  1/2)  (default:
              0, unlimited)

       vrc_buf_size=<value>
              buffer  size in kbit (pass 1/2).  For MPEG-1/2 this
              also sets the vbv buffer size, use 327 for VCD, 917
              for SVCD and 1835 for DVD.

       vrc_buf_aggressivity
              currently useless

       vrc_strategy
              Ratecontrol method.  Note that some of the ratecon-
              trol-affecting  options  will  have  no  effect  if
              vrc_strategy is not set to 0.
                 0    Use internal lavc ratecontrol (default).
                 1    Use  Xvid  ratecontrol  (experimental;  re-
                      quires MEncoder to be compiled with support
                      for Xvid 1.1 or higher).

       vb_qfactor=<-31.0-31.0>
              quantizer  factor between B- and non-B-frames (pass
              1/2) (default: 1.25)




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       vi_qfactor=<-31.0-31.0>
              quantizer factor between I- and non-I-frames  (pass
              1/2) (default: 0.8)

       vb_qoffset=<-31.0-31.0>
              quantizer  offset between B- and non-B-frames (pass
              1/2) (default: 1.25)

       vi_qoffset=<-31.0-31.0>
              (pass 1/2) (default: 0.0)
              if v{b|i}_qfactor > 0
              I/B-frame   quantizer   =   P-frame   quantizer   *
              v{b|i}_qfactor + v{b|i}_qoffset
              else
              do  normal ratecontrol (do not lock to next P-frame
              quantizer)  and  set  q=  -q  *  v{b|i}_qfactor   +
              v{b|i}_qoffset
              HINT:  To  do constant quantizer encoding with dif-
              ferent quantizers for I/P-  and  B-frames  you  can
              use:  lmin= <ip_quant>:lmax= <ip_quant>:vb_qfactor=
              <b_quant/:ip_quant>.

       vqblur=<0.0-1.0> (pass one)
              Quantizer blur (default: 0.5), larger  values  will
              average   the  quantizer  more  over  time  (slower
              change).
                 0.0  Quantizer blur disabled.
                 1.0  Average the  quantizer  over  all  previous
                      frames.

       vqblur=<0.0-99.0> (pass two)
              Quantizer gaussian blur (default: 0.5), larger val-
              ues will  average  the  quantizer  more  over  time
              (slower change).

       vqcomp=<0.0-1.0>
              Quantizer  compression,  vrc_eq  depends  upon this
              (pass 1/2) (default: 0.5).  For instance,  assuming
              the  default  rate control equation is used, if vq-
              comp=1.0, the ratecontrol allocates to  each  frame
              the number of bits needed to encode them all at the
              same QP.  If vqcomp=0.0, the ratecontrol  allocates
              the  same number of bits to each frame, i.e. strict
              CBR.  NOTE: Those are extreme settings  and  should
              never  be used.  Perceptual quality will be optimal
              somewhere in between these two extremes.

       vrc_eq=<equation>
              main ratecontrol equation (pass 1/2)

                 1
                      constant bitrate





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                 tex
                      constant quality

                 1+(tex/:avgTex-1)*qComp
                      approximately the equation of the old rate-
                      control code

                 tex^qComp
                      with  qcomp 0.5 or something like that (de-
                      fault)

              infix operators:

                 +,-,*,/,^

              variables:

                 tex
                      texture complexity

                 iTex,pTex
                      intra, non-intra texture complexity

                 avgTex
                      average texture complexity

                 avgIITex
                      average  intra  texture  complexity  in  I-
                      frames

                 avgPITex
                      average  intra  texture  complexity  in  P-
                      frames

                 avgPPTex
                      average non-intra texture complexity in  P-
                      frames

                 avgBPTex
                      average  non-intra texture complexity in B-
                      frames

                 mv
                      bits used for motion vectors

                 fCode
                      maximum length of  motion  vector  in  log2
                      scale

                 iCount
                      number  of  intra  macroblocks  / number of
                      macroblocks





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                 var
                      spatial complexity

                 mcVar
                      temporal complexity

                 qComp
                      qcomp from the command line

                 isI, isP, isB
                      Is 1 if picture type is I/P/B else 0.

                 Pi,E
                      See your favorite math book.

              functions:

                 max(a,b),min(a,b)
                      maximum / minimum

                 gt(a,b)
                      is 1 if a>b, 0 otherwise

                 lt(a,b)
                      is 1 if a<b, 0 otherwise

                 eq(a,b)
                      is 1 if a==b, 0 otherwise

                 sin, cos, tan, sinh, cosh, tanh, exp, log, abs

       vrc_override=<options>
              User specified quality for specific parts  (ending,
              credits,  ...) (pass 1/2).  The options are <start-
              frame>,   <end-frame>,    <quality>[/<start-frame>,
              <end-frame>, <quality>[/...]]:
                 quality (2-31)
                      quantizer
                 quality (-500-0)
                      quality correction in %

       vrc_init_cplx=<0-1000>
              initial complexity (pass 1)

       vrc_init_occupancy=<0.0-1.0>
              initial   buffer   occupancy,   as  a  fraction  of
              vrc_buf_size (default: 0.9)

       vqsquish=<0|1>
              Specify how to keep the quantizer between qmin  and
              qmax (pass 1/2).
                 0    Use clipping.
                 1    Use  a  nice  differentiable  function (de-
                      fault).



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       vlelim=<-1000-1000>
              Sets single coefficient elimination  threshold  for
              luminance.   Negative values will also consider the
              DC coefficient (should be at least -4 or lower  for
              encoding at quant=1):
                 0    disabled (default)
                 -4   JVT recommendation

       vcelim=<-1000-1000>
              Sets  single  coefficient elimination threshold for
              chrominance.  Negative values  will  also  consider
              the  DC coefficient (should be at least -4 or lower
              for encoding at quant=1):
                 0    disabled (default)
                 7    JVT recommendation

       vstrict=<-2|-1|0|1>
              strict standard compliance
                 0    disabled
                 1    Only recommended if you want  to  feed  the
                      output into the MPEG-4 reference decoder.
                 -1   Allow  libavcodec  specific extensions (de-
                      fault).
                 -2   Enables experimental  codecs  and  features
                      which  may  not  be  playable  with  future
                      MPlayer versions (snow).

       vdpart
              Data partitioning.  Adds 2 Bytes per video  packet,
              improves  error-resistance  when  transferring over
              unreliable channels (e.g. streaming over the inter-
              net).  Each video packet will be encoded in 3 sepa-
              rate partitions:
                 1. MVs
                      movement
                 2. DC coefficients
                      low res picture
                 3. AC coefficients
                      details
              MV & DC are most important, losing them  looks  far
              worse than losing the AC and the 1. & 2. partition.
              (MV & DC) are far smaller  than  the  3.  partition
              (AC)  meaning that errors will hit the AC partition
              much more often than the MV & DC partitions.  Thus,
              the picture will look better with partitioning than
              without, as  without  partitioning  an  error  will
              trash AC/:DC/:MV equally.

       vpsize=<0-10000> (also see vdpart)
              Video packet size, improves error-resistance.
                 0
                      disabled (default)
                 100-1000
                      good choice



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       ss
              slice structured mode for H.263+

       gray
              grayscale only encoding (faster)

       vfdct=<0-10>
              DCT algorithm
                 0    Automatically  select a good one (default).
                 1    fast integer
                 2    accurate integer
                 3    MMX
                 4    mlib
                 5    AltiVec
                 6    floating point AAN

       idct=<0-99>
              IDCT algorithm
              NOTE: To the best of our knowledge all these  IDCTs
              do pass the IEEE1180 tests.
                 0    Automatically  select a good one (default).
                 1    JPEG reference integer
                 2    simple
                 3    simplemmx
                 4    libmpeg2mmx (inaccurate, do not use for en-
                      coding with keyint >100)
                 5    ps2
                 6    mlib
                 7    arm
                 8    AltiVec
                 9    sh4
                 10   simplearm
                 11   H.264
                 12   VP3
                 13   IPP
                 14   xvidmmx
                 15   CAVS
                 16   simplearmv5te
                 17   simplearmv6

       lumi_mask=<0.0-1.0>
              Luminance masking is a 'psychosensory' setting that
              is supposed to make use of the fact that the  human
              eye  tends  to  notice fewer details in very bright
              parts of the picture.  Luminance masking compresses
              bright  areas stronger than medium ones, so it will
              save bits that can be spent again on other  frames,
              raising  overall subjective quality, while possibly
              reducing PSNR.
              WARNING: Be careful, overly large values can  cause
              disastrous things.
              WARNING: Large values might look good on some moni-
              tors but may look horrible on other monitors.




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                 0.0
                      disabled (default)
                 0.0-0.3
                      sane range

       dark_mask=<0.0-1.0>
              Darkness masking is a 'psychosensory' setting  that
              is  supposed to make use of the fact that the human
              eye tends to notice  fewer  details  in  very  dark
              parts  of the picture.  Darkness masking compresses
              dark areas stronger than medium ones,  so  it  will
              save  bits that can be spent again on other frames,
              raising overall subjective quality, while  possibly
              reducing PSNR.
              WARNING:  Be careful, overly large values can cause
              disastrous things.
              WARNING: Large values might look good on some moni-
              tors but may look horrible on other monitors / TV /
              TFT.
                 0.0
                      disabled (default)
                 0.0-0.3
                      sane range

       tcplx_mask=<0.0-1.0>
              Temporal complexity  masking  (default:  0.0  (dis-
              abled)).  Imagine a scene with a bird flying across
              the whole scene; tcplx_mask will raise the quantiz-
              ers  of  the  bird's  macroblocks  (thus decreasing
              their quality), as the human eye usually  does  not
              have time to see all the bird's details.  Be warned
              that if the masked  object  stops  (e.g.  the  bird
              lands)  it  is  likely to look horrible for a short
              period of time, until the encoder figures out  that
              the  object is not moving and needs refined blocks.
              The saved bits will be spent on other parts of  the
              video,  which may increase subjective quality, pro-
              vided that tcplx_mask is carefully chosen.

       scplx_mask=<0.0-1.0>
              Spatial complexity  masking.   Larger  values  help
              against blockiness, if no deblocking filter is used
              for decoding, which is maybe not a good idea.
              Imagine a scene with grass (which usually has great
              spatial  complexity),  a  blue sky and a house; sc-
              plx_mask will raise the quantizers  of  the  grass'
              macroblocks,  thus decreasing its quality, in order
              to spend more bits on the sky and the house.
              HINT: Crop any black  borders  completely  as  they
              will  reduce  the  quality of the macroblocks (also
              applies without scplx_mask).
                 0.0
                      disabled (default)




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                 0.0-0.5
                      sane range

              NOTE: This setting does not have the same effect as
              using a custom matrix that would compress high fre-
              quencies harder,  as  scplx_mask  will  reduce  the
              quality  of  P  blocks even if only DC is changing.
              The result of scplx_mask will probably not look  as
              good.

       p_mask=<0.0-1.0> (also see vi_qfactor)
              Reduces  the  quality  of  inter  blocks.   This is
              equivalent  to  increasing  the  quality  of  intra
              blocks,  because  the  same average bitrate will be
              distributed by the rate  controller  to  the  whole
              video    sequence    (default:   0.0   (disabled)).
              p_mask=1.0 doubles the bits allocated to each intra
              block.

       border_mask=<0.0-1.0>
              border-processing  for MPEG-style encoders.  Border
              processing increases the quantizer for  macroblocks
              which are less than 1/5th of the frame width/height
              away from the frame border, since  they  are  often
              visually less important.

       naq
              Normalize   adaptive  quantization  (experimental).
              When using adaptive quantization (*_mask), the  av-
              erage  per-MB quantizer may no longer match the re-
              quested frame-level quantizer.  Naq will attempt to
              adjust the per-MB quantizers to maintain the proper
              average.

       ildct
              Use interlaced DCT.

       ilme
              Use interlaced motion estimation  (mutually  exclu-
              sive with qpel).

       alt
              Use alternative scantable.

       top=<-1-1>
                 -1   automatic
                 0    bottom field first
                 1    top field first

       format=<value>
                 YV12
                      default
                 444P
                      for ffv1



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                 422P
                      for HuffYUV, lossless JPEG, dv and ffv1
                 411P
                      for lossless JPEG, dv and ffv1
                 YVU9
                      for lossless JPEG, ffv1 and svq1
                 BGR32
                      for lossless JPEG and ffv1

       pred
              (for HuffYUV)
                 0    left prediction
                 1    plane/:gradient prediction
                 2    median prediction

       pred
              (for lossless JPEG)
                 0    left prediction
                 1    top prediction
                 2    topleft prediction
                 3    plane/:gradient prediction
                 6    mean prediction

       coder
              (for ffv1)
                 0    vlc coding (Golomb-Rice)
                 1    arithmetic coding (CABAC)

       context
              (for ffv1)
                 0    small context model
                 1    large context model

              (for ffvhuff)
                 0    predetermined  Huffman  tables  (builtin or
                      two pass)
                 1    adaptive Huffman tables

       qpel
              Use quarter pel motion compensation  (mutually  ex-
              clusive with ilme).
              HINT:  This  seems only useful for high bitrate en-
              codings.

       mbcmp=<0-2000>
              Sets the comparison function for the macroblock de-
              cision, has only an effect if mbd=0.
                 0 (SAD)
                      sum of absolute differences, fast (default)
                 1 (SSE)
                      sum of squared errors
                 2 (SATD)
                      sum of absolute Hadamard  transformed  dif-
                      ferences



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                 3 (DCT)
                      sum of absolute DCT transformed differences
                 4 (PSNR)
                      sum of squared quantization errors  (avoid,
                      low quality)
                 5 (BIT)
                      number of bits needed for the block
                 6 (RD)
                      rate distortion optimal, slow
                 7 (ZERO)
                      0
                 8 (VSAD)
                      sum of absolute vertical differences
                 9 (VSSE)
                      sum of squared vertical differences
                 10 (NSSE)
                      noise preserving sum of squared differences
                 11 (W53)
                      5/3 wavelet, only used in snow
                 12 (W97)
                      9/7 wavelet, only used in snow
                 +256
                      Also use chroma, currently  does  not  work
                      (correctly) with B-frames.

       ildctcmp=<0-2000>
              Sets the comparison function for interlaced DCT de-
              cision (see mbcmp for  available  comparison  func-
              tions).

       precmp=<0-2000>
              Sets  the comparison function for motion estimation
              pre pass (see mbcmp for available comparison  func-
              tions) (default: 0).

       cmp=<0-2000>
              Sets  the  comparison  function for full pel motion
              estimation  (see  mbcmp  for  available  comparison
              functions) (default: 0).

       subcmp=<0-2000>
              Sets the comparison function for sub pel motion es-
              timation (see mbcmp for available comparison  func-
              tions) (default: 0).

       skipcmp=<0-2000>
              FIXME: Document this.

       nssew=<0-1000000>
              This  setting  controls  NSSE  weight, where larger
              weights will result in more noise.  0 NSSE is iden-
              tical to SSE You may find this useful if you prefer
              to keep some noise in  your  encoded  video  rather
              than  filtering  it  away before encoding (default:



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              8).

       predia=<-99-6>
              diamond type and size for  motion  estimation  pre-
              pass

       dia=<-99-6>
              Diamond  type & size for motion estimation.  Motion
              search is an iterative process.  Using a small dia-
              mond  does  not  limit  the  search to finding only
              small motion vectors.  It  is  just  somewhat  more
              likely  to stop before finding the very best motion
              vector, especially when noise is involved.   Bigger
              diamonds  allow  a wider search for the best motion
              vector, thus are slower but result in better quali-
              ty.
              Big  normal diamonds are better quality than shape-
              adaptive diamonds.
              Shape-adaptive diamonds are a good tradeoff between
              speed and quality.
              NOTE:  The  sizes  of the normal diamonds and shape
              adaptive ones do not have the same meaning.

                 -3   shape adaptive (fast) diamond with size 3

                 -2   shape adaptive (fast) diamond with size 2

                 -1   uneven multi-hexagon search (slow)

                 1    normal size=1 diamond (default) =EPZS  type
                      diamond
                            0
                           000
                            0

                 2    normal size=2 diamond
                            0
                           000
                          00000
                           000
                            0

       trell
              Trellis  searched quantization.  This will find the
              optimal  encoding  for  each  8x8  block.   Trellis
              searched  quantization  is  quite simply an optimal
              quantization in the PSNR versus bitrate sense  (As-
              suming  that  there would be no rounding errors in-
              troduced by the IDCT, which is  obviously  not  the
              case.).  It simply finds a block for the minimum of
              error and lambda*bits.
                 lambda
                      quantization parameter (QP) dependent  con-
                      stant



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                 bits
                      amount of bits needed to encode the block
                 error
                      sum of squared errors of the quantization

       cbp
              Rate  distorted  optimal coded block pattern.  Will
              select the coded block pattern which minimizes dis-
              tortion  +  lambda*rate.  This can only be used to-
              gether with trellis quantization.

       mv0
              Try to encode each MB with MV=<0,0> and choose  the
              better one.  This has no effect if mbd=0.

       mv0_threshold=<any non-negative integer>
              When  surrounding  motion vectors are <0,0> and the
              motion estimation score of  the  current  block  is
              less  than mv0_threshold, <0,0> is used for the mo-
              tion  vector  and  further  motion  estimation   is
              skipped  (default: 256).  Lowering mv0_threshold to
              0 can give a slight (0.01dB) PSNR increase and pos-
              sibly  make the encoded video look slightly better;
              raising mv0_threshold past 320  results  in  dimin-
              ished PSNR and visual quality.  Higher values speed
              up encoding very slightly (usually  less  than  1%,
              depending on the other options used).
              NOTE:  This  option  does not require mv0 to be en-
              abled.

       qprd (mbd=2 only)
              rate distorted optimal quantization parameter  (QP)
              for the given lambda of each macroblock

       last_pred=<0-99>
              amount of motion predictors from the previous frame
                 0    (default)
                 a    Will use 2a+1 x 2a+1 macroblock  square  of
                      motion  vector predictors from the previous
                      frame.

       preme=<0-2>
              motion estimation pre-pass
                 0    disabled
                 1    only after I-frames (default)
                 2    always

       subq=<1-8>
              subpel refinement quality (for  qpel)  (default:  8
              (high quality))
              NOTE: This has a significant effect on speed.

       refs=<1-8>
              number  of  reference frames to consider for motion



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              compensation (Snow only) (default: 1)

       psnr
              print the PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio) for the
              whole  video after encoding and store the per frame
              PSNR in a file with a name like  'psnr_hhmmss.log'.
              Returned values are in dB (decibel), the higher the
              better.

       mpeg_quant
              Use MPEG quantizers instead of H.263.

       aic
              Enable AC prediction for MPEG-4 or  advanced  intra
              prediction  for  H.263+.  This will improve quality
              very slightly (around 0.02 dB PSNR) and  slow  down
              encoding very slightly (about 1%).
              NOTE: vqmin should be 8 or larger for H.263+ AIC.

       aiv
              alternative inter vlc for H.263+

       umv
              unlimited  MVs (H.263+ only) Allows encoding of ar-
              bitrarily long MVs.

       ibias=<-256-256>
              intra quantizer bias (256 equals  1.0,  MPEG  style
              quantizer  default:  96,  H.263 style quantizer de-
              fault: 0)
              NOTE: The H.263 MMX quantizer cannot  handle  posi-
              tive  biases (set vfdct=1 or 2), the MPEG MMX quan-
              tizer cannot handle negative biases (set vfdct=1 or
              2).

       pbias=<-256-256>
              inter  quantizer  bias  (256 equals 1.0, MPEG style
              quantizer default: 0,  H.263  style  quantizer  de-
              fault: -64)
              NOTE:  The  H.263 MMX quantizer cannot handle posi-
              tive biases (set vfdct=1 or 2), the MPEG MMX  quan-
              tizer cannot handle negative biases (set vfdct=1 or
              2).
              HINT: A more positive bias (-32 -  -16  instead  of
              -64) seems to improve the PSNR.

       nr=<0-100000>
              Noise reduction, 0 means disabled.  0-600 is a use-
              ful range for typical content, but you may want  to
              turn  it  up a bit more for very noisy content (de-
              fault: 0).  Given its small impact  on  speed,  you
              might  want  to  prefer  to use this over filtering
              noise away with video  filters  like  denoise3d  or
              hqdn3d.



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       qns=<0-3>
              Quantizer  noise  shaping.   Rather  than  choosing
              quantization to most closely match the source video
              in  the  PSNR  sense,  it chooses quantization such
              that noise (usually ringing) will be masked by sim-
              ilar-frequency content in the image.  Larger values
              are slower but may not result  in  better  quality.
              This  can  and should be used together with trellis
              quantization, in which case the  trellis  quantiza-
              tion  (optimal for constant weight) will be used as
              startpoint for the iterative search.
                 0    disabled (default)
                 1    Only lower the absolute  value  of  coeffi-
                      cients.
                 2    Only  change  coefficients  before the last
                      non-zero coefficient + 1.
                 3    Try all.

       inter_matrix=<comma separated matrix>
              Use custom inter matrix.  It needs a comma separat-
              ed string of 64 integers.

       intra_matrix=<comma separated matrix>
              Use custom intra matrix.  It needs a comma separat-
              ed string of 64 integers.

       vqmod_amp
              experimental quantizer modulation

       vqmod_freq
              experimental quantizer modulation

       dc
              intra DC precision in bits (default:  8).   If  you
              specify  vcodec=mpeg2video  this value can be 8, 9,
              10 or 11.

       cgop (also see sc_threshold)
              Close all GOPs.  Currently it only works  if  scene
              change    detection    is    disabled   (sc_thresh-
              old=1000000000).

       (no)lowdelay
              Sets the low delay flag for MPEG-1/2  (disables  B-
              frames).

       vglobal=<0-3>
              Control writing global video headers.
                 0    Codec decides where to write global headers
                      (default).
                 1    Write  global  headers  only  in  extradata
                      (needed for .mp4/MOV/NUT).
                 2    Write  global  headers  only  in  front  of
                      keyframes.



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                 3    Combine 1 and 2.

       aglobal=<0-3>
              Same as vglobal for audio headers.

       level=<value>
              Set CodecContext Level.  Use 31 or 41 to play video
              on a Playstation 3.

       skip_exp=<0-1000000>
              FIXME: Document this.

       skip_factor=<0-1000000>
              FIXME: Document this.

       skip_threshold=<0-1000000>
              FIXME: Document this.

   nuv (-nuvopts)
       Nuppel  video  is  based  on  RTJPEG  and LZO.  By default
       frames are first encoded with RTJPEG and  then  compressed
       with  LZO, but it is possible to disable either or both of
       the two passes.  As a result, you can in fact  output  raw
       i420, LZO compressed i420, RTJPEG, or the default LZO com-
       pressed RTJPEG.
       NOTE: The nuvrec documentation contains  some  advice  and
       examples  about the settings to use for the most common TV
       encodings.

       c=<0-20>
              chrominance threshold (default: 1)

       l=<0-20>
              luminance threshold (default: 1)

       lzo
              Enable LZO compression (default).

       nolzo
              Disable LZO compression.

       q=<3-255>
              quality level (default: 255)

       raw
              Disable RTJPEG encoding.

       rtjpeg
              Enable RTJPEG encoding (default).

   xvidenc (-xvidencopts)
       There are three modes available: constant  bitrate  (CBR),
       fixed quantizer and two pass.




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       pass=<1|2>
              Specify the pass in two pass mode.

       turbo (two pass only)
              Dramatically  speeds up pass one using faster algo-
              rithms and disabling CPU-intensive  options.   This
              will  probably  reduce global PSNR a little bit and
              change individual frame type and PSNR a little  bit
              more.

       bitrate=<value> (CBR or two pass mode)
              Sets  the  bitrate  to  be used in kbits/:second if
              <16000 or in bits/:second if >16000.  If <value> is
              negative,  Xvid  will use its absolute value as the
              target size (in kBytes) of the  video  and  compute
              the  associated bitrate automagically (default: 687
              kbits/s).

       fixed_quant=<1-31>
              Switch to fixed  quantizer  mode  and  specify  the
              quantizer to be used.

       zones=<zone0>[/<zone1>[/...]] (CBR or two pass mode)
              User  specified quality for specific parts (ending,
              credits,    ...).     Each    zone    is    <start-
              frame>,<mode>,<value> where <mode> may be
                 q    Constant  quantizer  override,  where  val-
                      ue=<2.0-31.0> represents the quantizer val-
                      ue.
                 w    Ratecontrol  weight  override,  where  val-
                      ue=<0.01-2.00> represents the quality  cor-
                      rection in %.

              EXAMPLE:
                 zones=90000,q,20
                      Encodes  all  frames  starting  with  frame
                      90000 at constant quantizer 20.
                 zones=0,w,0.1/10001,w,1.0/90000,q,20
                      Encode frames 0-10000 at 10%  bitrate,  en-
                      code frames 90000 up to the end at constant
                      quantizer 20.  Note that the second zone is
                      needed  to delimit the first zone, as with-
                      out it  everything  up  until  frame  89999
                      would be encoded at 10% bitrate.

       me_quality=<0-6>
              This  option controls the motion estimation subsys-
              tem.  The higher the value, the  more  precise  the
              estimation  should  be (default: 6).  The more pre-
              cise the motion estimation is, the more bits can be
              saved.   Precision  is gained at the expense of CPU
              time so decrease this setting if you need  realtime
              encoding.




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       (no)qpel
              MPEG-4  uses  a half pixel precision for its motion
              search by default.  The standard  proposes  a  mode
              where  encoders  are  allowed  to use quarter pixel
              precision.  This option usually results in a sharp-
              er  image.   Unfortunately it has a great impact on
              bitrate and sometimes the higher bitrate  use  will
              prevent  it from giving a better image quality at a
              fixed bitrate.  It is better to test with and with-
              out  this  option and see whether it is worth acti-
              vating.

       (no)gmc
              Enable Global Motion Compensation, which makes Xvid
              generate special frames (GMC-frames) which are well
              suited for Pan/:Zoom/:Rotating images.  Whether  or
              not the use of this option will save bits is highly
              dependent on the source material.

       (no)trellis
              Trellis Quantization is a kind of adaptive  quanti-
              zation  method  that  saves bits by modifying quan-
              tized coefficients to make them  more  compressible
              by  the  entropy encoder.  Its impact on quality is
              good, and if VHQ uses too much CPU  for  you,  this
              setting  can  be  a  good alternative to save a few
              bits (and gain quality at fixed bitrate) at a less-
              er cost than with VHQ (default: on).

       (no)cartoon
              Activate  this  if your encoded sequence is an ani-
              me/:cartoon.   It  modifies  some   Xvid   internal
              thresholds  so Xvid takes better decisions on frame
              types and motion vectors for flat looking cartoons.

       (no)chroma_me
              The usual motion estimation algorithm uses only the
              luminance information to find the best motion  vec-
              tor.   However  for  some video material, using the
              chroma planes can help find better  vectors.   This
              setting toggles the use of chroma planes for motion
              estimation (default: on).

       (no)chroma_opt
              Enable a chroma optimizer prefilter.   It  will  do
              some  extra  magic on color information to minimize
              the stepped-stairs effect on edges.   It  will  im-
              prove  quality  at  the cost of encoding speed.  It
              reduces PSNR by nature, as the mathematical  devia-
              tion  to  the original picture will get bigger, but
              the subjective image quality will raise.  Since  it
              works  with  color  information,  you might want to
              turn it off when encoding in grayscale.




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       (no)hq_ac
              Activates high-quality  prediction  of  AC  coeffi-
              cients  for  intra frames from neighbor blocks (de-
              fault: on).

       vhq=<0-4>
              The motion search algorithm is based on a search in
              the  usual  color domain and tries to find a motion
              vector that minimizes the  difference  between  the
              reference  frame  and the encoded frame.  With this
              setting activated, Xvid will also use the frequency
              domain  (DCT)  to  search  for a motion vector that
              minimizes not only the spatial difference but  also
              the encoding length of the block.  Fastest to slow-
              est:
                 0    off
                 1    mode decision (inter/:intra MB) (default)
                 2    limited search
                 3    medium search
                 4    wide search

       (no)lumi_mask
              Adaptive quantization allows the  macroblock  quan-
              tizers  to vary inside each frame.  This is a 'psy-
              chosensory' setting that is supposed to make use of
              the  fact  that the human eye tends to notice fewer
              details in very bright and very dark parts  of  the
              picture.   It  compresses those areas more strongly
              than medium ones, which will save bits that can  be
              spent  again  on other frames, raising overall sub-
              jective quality and possibly reducing PSNR.

       (no)grayscale
              Make Xvid discard  chroma  planes  so  the  encoded
              video  is  grayscale only.  Note that this does not
              speed up encoding, it  just  prevents  chroma  data
              from being written in the last stage of encoding.

       (no)interlacing
              Encode  the  fields  of  interlaced video material.
              Turn this option on for interlaced content.
              NOTE: Should you rescale the video, you would  need
              an  interlace-aware resizer, which you can activate
              with -vf scale=<width>:<height>:1.

       min_iquant=<0-31>
              minimum I-frame quantizer (default: 2)

       max_iquant=<0-31>
              maximum I-frame quantizer (default: 31)

       min_pquant=<0-31>
              minimum P-frame quantizer (default: 2)




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       max_pquant=<0-31>
              maximum P-frame quantizer (default: 31)

       min_bquant=<0-31>
              minimum B-frame quantizer (default: 2)

       max_bquant=<0-31>
              maximum B-frame quantizer (default: 31)

       min_key_interval=<value> (two pass only)
              minimum interval between keyframes (default: 0)

       max_key_interval=<value>
              maximum  interval   between   keyframes   (default:
              10*fps)

       quant_type=<h263|mpeg>
              Sets  the  type  of quantizer to use.  For high bi-
              trates, you will find that MPEG  quantization  pre-
              serves  more detail.  For low bitrates, the smooth-
              ing of H.263 will give you less block noise.   When
              using  custom  matrices,  MPEG quantization must be
              used.

       quant_intra_matrix=<filename>
              Load a custom intra matrix  file.   You  can  build
              such a file with xvid4conf's matrix editor.

       quant_inter_matrix=<filename>
              Load  a  custom  inter  matrix file.  You can build
              such a file with xvid4conf's matrix editor.

       keyframe_boost=<0-1000> (two pass mode only)
              Shift some bits from the pool for other frame types
              to  intra  frames, thus improving keyframe quality.
              This amount is an extra percentage, so a  value  of
              10 will give your keyframes 10% more bits than nor-
              mal (default: 0).

       kfthreshold=<value> (two pass mode only)
              Works together with  kfreduction.   Determines  the
              minimum  distance below which you consider that two
              frames are considered consecutive and treated  dif-
              ferently according to kfreduction (default: 10).

       kfreduction=<0-100> (two pass mode only)
              The  above  two  settings can be used to adjust the
              size of keyframes that you consider  too  close  to
              the  first  (in a row).  kfthreshold sets the range
              in which keyframes are reduced, and kfreduction de-
              termines  the bitrate reduction they get.  The last
              I-frame will get treated normally (default: 30).





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       max_bframes=<0-4>
              Maximum number of  B-frames  to  put  between  I/P-
              frames (default: 2).

       bquant_ratio=<0-1000>
              quantizer   ratio   between  B-  and  non-B-frames,
              150=1.50 (default: 150)

       bquant_offset=<-1000-1000>
              quantizer  offset  between  B-  and   non-B-frames,
              100=1.00 (default: 100)

       bf_threshold=<-255-255>
              This setting allows you to specify what priority to
              place on the use of B-frames.  The higher the  val-
              ue,  the  higher  the probability of B-frames being
              used (default: 0).  Do  not  forget  that  B-frames
              usually  have a higher quantizer, and therefore ag-
              gressive production of B-frames may cause worse vi-
              sual quality.

       (no)closed_gop
              This option tells Xvid to close every GOP (Group Of
              Pictures bounded by two I-frames), which makes GOPs
              independent  from  each  other.   This just implies
              that the last frame of the GOP is either a  P-frame
              or  a  N-frame  but not a B-frame.  It is usually a
              good idea to turn this option on (default: on).

       (no)packed
              This option is meant to  solve  frame-order  issues
              when  encoding  to  container formats like AVI that
              cannot cope with out-of-order frames.  In practice,
              most decoders (both software and hardware) are able
              to deal with frame-order themselves,  and  may  get
              confused  when this option is turned on, so you can
              safely leave if off, unless you  really  know  what
              you are doing.
              WARNING:  This  will generate an illegal bitstream,
              and will not be decodable  by  ISO-MPEG-4  decoders
              except DivX/:libavcodec/:Xvid.
              WARNING:  This  will also store a fake DivX version
              in the file so the bug autodetection  of  some  de-
              coders might be confused.

       frame_drop_ratio=<0-100> (max_bframes=0 only)
              This  setting allows the creation of variable fram-
              erate video streams.   The  value  of  the  setting
              specifies  a  threshold under which, if the differ-
              ence of the following frame to the  previous  frame
              is  below  or equal to this threshold, a frame gets
              not coded (a so  called  n-vop  is  placed  in  the
              stream).   On  playback, when reaching an n-vop the
              previous frame will be displayed.



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              WARNING: Playing with this setting may result in  a
              jerky video, so use it at your own risks!

       rc_reaction_delay_factor=<value>
              This  parameter  controls  the number of frames the
              CBR rate controller will wait  before  reacting  to
              bitrate changes and compensating for them to obtain
              a constant  bitrate  over  an  averaging  range  of
              frames.

       rc_averaging_period=<value>
              Real  CBR  is  hard  to  achieve.  Depending on the
              video material, bitrate can be variable,  and  hard
              to predict.  Therefore Xvid uses an averaging peri-
              od for which it guarantees a given amount  of  bits
              (minus a small variation).  This settings expresses
              the "number of frames" for which Xvid averages  bi-
              trate and tries to achieve CBR.

       rc_buffer=<value>
              size of the rate control buffer

       curve_compression_high=<0-100>
              This setting allows Xvid to take a certain percent-
              age of bits away from high bitrate scenes and  give
              them back to the bit reservoir.  You could also use
              this if you have a clip with so many bits allocated
              to  high-bitrate  scenes  that  the low(er)-bitrate
              scenes start to look bad (default: 0).

       curve_compression_low=<0-100>
              This setting allows Xvid to give a certain percent-
              age of extra bits to the low bitrate scenes, taking
              a few bits from the entire clip.  This  might  come
              in  handy if you have a few low-bitrate scenes that
              are still blocky (default: 0).

       overflow_control_strength=<0-100>
              During pass one of two pass encoding, a scaled  bi-
              trate  curve  is  computed.  The difference between
              that expected curve and the result obtained  during
              encoding  is  called  overflow.  Obviously, the two
              pass rate controller tries to compensate  for  that
              overflow,  distributing  it  over  the next frames.
              This setting controls how much of the  overflow  is
              distributed  every  time there is a new frame.  Low
              values allow lazy overflow control, big rate bursts
              are compensated for more slowly (could lead to lack
              of precision for small clips).  Higher values  will
              make  changes  in  bit  redistribution more abrupt,
              possibly too abrupt if you set it too high,  creat-
              ing artifacts (default: 5).
              NOTE: This setting impacts quality a lot, play with
              it carefully!



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       max_overflow_improvement=<0-100>
              During the frame bit allocation,  overflow  control
              may increase the frame size.  This parameter speci-
              fies the maximum percentage by which  the  overflow
              control is allowed to increase the frame size, com-
              pared to the ideal curve allocation (default: 5).

       max_overflow_degradation=<0-100>
              During the frame bit allocation,  overflow  control
              may decrease the frame size.  This parameter speci-
              fies the maximum percentage by which  the  overflow
              control is allowed to decrease the frame size, com-
              pared to the ideal curve allocation (default: 5).

       container_frame_overhead=<0...>
              Specifies a frame average overhead  per  frame,  in
              bytes.  Most of the time users express their target
              bitrate for video w/o taking care of the video con-
              tainer  overhead.  This small but (mostly) constant
              overhead can cause the target file size to  be  ex-
              ceeded.   Xvid  allows  users  to set the amount of
              overhead per frame the  container  generates  (give
              only  an average per frame).  0 has a special mean-
              ing, it lets Xvid use its own default  values  (de-
              fault: 24 - AVI average overhead).

       profile=<profile_name>
              Restricts  options  and  VBV  (peak  bitrate over a
              short period) according  to  the  Simple,  Advanced
              Simple  and  DivX  profiles.   The resulting videos
              should be playable on standalone  players  adhering
              to these profile specifications.
                 unrestricted
                      no restrictions (default)
                 sp0
                      simple profile at level 0
                 sp1
                      simple profile at level 1
                 sp2
                      simple profile at level 2
                 sp3
                      simple profile at level 3
                 asp0
                      advanced simple profile at level 0
                 asp1
                      advanced simple profile at level 1
                 asp2
                      advanced simple profile at level 2
                 asp3
                      advanced simple profile at level 3
                 asp4
                      advanced simple profile at level 4
                 asp5
                      advanced simple profile at level 5



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                 dxnhandheld
                      DXN handheld profile
                 dxnportntsc
                      DXN portable NTSC profile
                 dxnportpal
                      DXN portable PAL profile
                 dxnhtntsc
                      DXN home theater NTSC profile
                 dxnhtpal
                      DXN home theater PAL profile
                 dxnhdtv
                      DXN HDTV profile
              NOTE:  These profiles should be used in conjunction
              with an appropriate -ffourcc.   Generally  DX50  is
              applicable,  as  some players do not recognize Xvid
              but most recognize DivX.

       par=<mode>
              Specifies the Pixel Aspect Ratio mode  (not  to  be
              confused  with DAR, the Display Aspect Ratio).  PAR
              is the ratio of the width and height  of  a  single
              pixel.   So both are related like this: DAR = PAR *
              (width/height).
              MPEG-4 defines 5 pixel aspect ratios  and  one  ex-
              tended  one,  giving  the  opportunity to specify a
              specific pixel aspect ratio.  5 standard modes  can
              be specified:
                 vga11
                      It is the usual PAR for PC content.  Pixels
                      are a square unit.
                 pal43
                      PAL standard 4:3 PAR.  Pixels  are  rectan-
                      gles.
                 pal169
                      same as above
                 ntsc43
                      same as above
                 ntsc169
                      same  as  above  (Do not forget to give the
                      exact ratio.)
                 ext
                      Allows you to specify your own pixel aspect
                      ratio with par_width and par_height.
              NOTE: In general, setting aspect and autoaspect op-
              tions is enough.

       par_width=<1-255> (par=ext only)
              Specifies the width of the custom pixel aspect  ra-
              tio.

       par_height=<1-255> (par=ext only)
              Specifies the height of the custom pixel aspect ra-
              tio.




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       aspect=<x/y | f (float value)>
              Store  movie  aspect  internally,  just  like  MPEG
              files.  Much nicer solution than rescaling, because
              quality is not decreased.  MPlayer and a few others
              players  will  play  these  files correctly, others
              will display them with the wrong aspect.   The  as-
              pect  parameter can be given as a ratio or a float-
              ing point number.

       (no)autoaspect
              Same as the aspect option, but  automatically  com-
              putes  aspect,  taking into account all the adjust-
              ments (crop/:expand/:scale/:etc.) made in the  fil-
              ter chain.

       psnr
              Print the PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio) for the
              whole video after encoding and store the per  frame
              PSNR  in  a file with a name like 'psnr_hhmmss.log'
              in the current directory.  Returned values  are  in
              dB (decibel), the higher the better.

       debug
              Save  per-frame  statistics in ./xvid.dbg. (This is
              not the two pass control file.)


       The following option is only available in Xvid 1.1.x.

       bvhq=<0|1>
              This setting allows vector candidates for  B-frames
              to  be  used  for  the encoding chosen using a rate
              distortion optimized operator,  which  is  what  is
              done for P-frames by the vhq option.  This produces
              nicer-looking B-frames while  incurring  almost  no
              performance penalty (default: 1).


       The  following  option is only available in the 1.2.x ver-
       sion of Xvid.

       threads=<0-n>
              Create n threads to run the motion estimation  (de-
              fault:  0).  The maximum number of threads that can
              be used is the picture height divided by 16.

   x264enc (-x264encopts)
       bitrate=<value>
              Sets the average bitrate to be used in  kbits/:sec-
              ond  (default: off).  Since local bitrate may vary,
              this average  may  be  inaccurate  for  very  short
              videos  (see  ratetol).   Constant  bitrate  can be
              achieved by combining  this  with  vbv_maxrate,  at
              significant reduction in quality.



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       qp=<0-51>
              This selects the quantizer to use for P-frames.  I-
              and B-frames are offset from this value by  ip_fac-
              tor and pb_factor, respectively.  20-40 is a useful
              range.  Lower values result in better fidelity, but
              higher bitrates.  0 is lossless.  Note that quanti-
              zation in H.264 works differently from  MPEG-1/2/4:
              H.264's  quantization  parameter (QP) is on a loga-
              rithmic scale.  The mapping is approximately H264QP
              =  12  + 6*log2(MPEGQP).  For example, MPEG at QP=2
              is equivalent to H.264 at QP=18.

       crf=<1.0-50.0>
              Enables constant  quality  mode,  and  selects  the
              quality.  The scale is similar to QP.  Like the bi-
              trate-based modes, this allows each frame to use  a
              different QP based on the frame's complexity.

       pass=<1-3>
              Enable  2 or 3-pass mode.  It is recommended to al-
              ways encode in 2 or 3-pass mode as it  leads  to  a
              better bit distribution and improves overall quali-
              ty.
                 1    first pass
                 2    second pass (of two pass encoding)
                 3    Nth pass (second and third passes of  three
                      pass encoding)
              Here is how it works, and how to use it:
              The  first pass (pass=1) collects statistics on the
              video and writes them to a file.  You might want to
              deactivate  some CPU-hungry options, apart from the
              ones that are on by default.
              In two pass mode, the second  pass  (pass=2)  reads
              the statistics file and bases ratecontrol decisions
              on it.
              In three pass mode, the second pass  (pass=3,  that
              is  not  a  typo)  does  both:  It  first reads the
              statistics, then overwrites them.  You can use  all
              encoding options, except very CPU-hungry options.
              The  third  pass (pass=3) is the same as the second
              pass, except that it has the second  pass'  statis-
              tics  to  work  from.  You can use all encoding op-
              tions, including CPU-hungry ones.
              The first pass may use either  average  bitrate  or
              constant  quantizer.   ABR is recommended, since it
              does not require guessing a quantizer.   Subsequent
              passes are ABR, and must specify bitrate.

       turbo=<0-2>
              Fast  first  pass mode.  During the first pass of a
              two or more pass encode  it  is  possible  to  gain
              speed  by disabling some options with negligible or
              even no impact on the final pass output quality.
                 0    disabled (default)



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                 1    Reduce subq, frameref and disable some  in-
                      ter-macroblock partition analysis modes.
                 2    Reduce  subq  and frameref to 1, use a dia-
                      mond ME search and  disable  all  partition
                      analysis modes.
              Level 1 can increase first pass speed up to 2x with
              no change in the global PSNR of the final pass com-
              pared to a full quality first pass.
              Level 2 can increase first pass speed up to 4x with
              about +/- 0.05dB change in the global PSNR  of  the
              final pass compared to a full quality first pass.

       keyint=<value>
              Sets  maximum interval between IDR-frames (default:
              250).  Larger values save bits, thus improve quali-
              ty,  at  the  cost  of  seeking  precision.  Unlike
              MPEG-1/2/4, H.264 does not suffer  from  DCT  drift
              with large values of keyint.

       keyint_min=<1-keyint/2>
              Sets  minimum interval between IDR-frames (default:
              25).  If scenecuts  appear  within  this  interval,
              they  are  still  encoded  as  I-frames, but do not
              start a new GOP.  In H.264, I-frames do not  neces-
              sarily  bound  a closed GOP because it is allowable
              for a P-frame to be predicted from more frames than
              just  the  one frame before it (also see frameref).
              Therefore, I-frames are not  necessarily  seekable.
              IDR-frames restrict subsequent P-frames from refer-
              ring to any frame prior to the IDR-frame.

       scenecut=<-1-100>
              Controls how aggressively to insert extra  I-frames
              (default:  40).  With small values of scenecut, the
              codec often has to force an I-frame when  it  would
              exceed  keyint.  Good values of scenecut may find a
              better location for the I-frame.  Large values  use
              more  I-frames  than  necessary, thus wasting bits.
              -1 disables scene-cut detection,  so  I-frames  are
              inserted  only once every other keyint frames, even
              if a scene-cut occurs earlier.  This is not  recom-
              mended  and  wastes bitrate as scenecuts encoded as
              P-frames are just as big as I-frames,  but  do  not
              reset the "keyint counter".

       frameref=<1-16>
              Number  of previous frames used as predictors in B-
              and P-frames (default: 1).  This  is  effective  in
              anime, but in live-action material the improvements
              usually drop off very rapidly above 6 or so  refer-
              ence frames.  This has no effect on decoding speed,
              but does increase the memory needed  for  decoding.
              Some  decoders can only handle a maximum of 15 ref-
              erence frames.



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       bframes=<0-16>
              maximum number of consecutive B-frames  between  I-
              and P-frames (default: 0)

       (no)b_adapt
              Automatically  decides when to use B-frames and how
              many, up to the maximum specified  above  (default:
              on).   If this option is disabled, then the maximum
              number of B-frames is used.

       b_bias=<-100-100>
              Controls the  decision  performed  by  b_adapt.   A
              higher  b_bias produces more B-frames (default: 0).

       (no)b_pyramid
              Allows B-frames to be used as references  for  pre-
              dicting other frames.  For example, consider 3 con-
              secutive B-frames: I0 B1 B2 B3  P4.   Without  this
              option,   B-frames   follow  the  same  pattern  as
              MPEG-[124].  So they are coded in the order  I0  P4
              B1  B2  B3, and all the B-frames are predicted from
              I0 and P4.  With this option, they are coded as  I0
              P4  B2  B1  B3.  B2 is the same as above, but B1 is
              predicted from I0 and B2, and B3 is predicted  from
              B2  and  P4.   This usually results in slightly im-
              proved compression, at almost no speed cost.   How-
              ever,  this  is  an  experimental option: it is not
              fully tuned and  may  not  always  help.   Requires
              bframes >= 2.  Disadvantage: increases decoding de-
              lay to 2 frames.

       (no)deblock
              Use deblocking filter (default: on).  As  it  takes
              very  little  time compared to its quality gain, it
              is not recommended to disable it.

       deblock=<-6-6>,<-6-6>
              The first parameter is AlphaC0 (default: 0).   This
              adjusts thresholds for the H.264 in-loop deblocking
              filter.  First, this parameter adjusts the  maximum
              amount  of  change  that  the  filter is allowed to
              cause on any one pixel.  Secondly,  this  parameter
              affects  the  threshold  for  difference across the
              edge being  filtered.   A  positive  value  reduces
              blocking  artifacts  more,  but will also smear de-
              tails.
              The second parameter is Beta  (default:  0).   This
              affects the detail threshold.  Very detailed blocks
              are not filtered, since the smoothing caused by the
              filter  would  be more noticeable than the original
              blocking.
              The default behavior of the  filter  almost  always
              achieves  optimal  quality, so it is best to either
              leave it alone, or  make  only  small  adjustments.



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              However,  if  your source material already has some
              blocking or noise which you would like  to  remove,
              it may be a good idea to turn it up a little bit.

       (no)cabac
              Use  CABAC (Context-Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Cod-
              ing) (default: on).  Slightly slows  down  encoding
              and  decoding, but should save 10-15% bitrate.  Un-
              less you are looking for decoding speed, you should
              not disable it.

       qp_min=<1-51> (ABR or two pass)
              Minimum quantizer, 10-30 seems to be a useful range
              (default: 10).

       qp_max=<1-51> (ABR or two pass)
              maximum quantizer (default: 51)

       qp_step=<1-50> (ABR or two pass)
              maximum value by which the quantizer may be  incre-
              mented/decremented between frames (default: 4)

       ratetol=<0.1-100.0> (ABR or two pass)
              allowed  variance in average bitrate (no particular
              units) (default: 1.0)

       vbv_maxrate=<value> (ABR or two pass)
              maximum local bitrate, in  kbits/:second  (default:
              disabled)

       vbv_bufsize=<value> (ABR or two pass)
              averaging  period  for  vbv_maxrate,  in kbits (de-
              fault: none, must be specified  if  vbv_maxrate  is
              enabled)

       vbv_init=<0.0-1.0> (ABR or two pass)
              initial buffer occupancy, as a fraction of vbv_buf-
              size (default: 0.9)

       ip_factor=<value>
              quantizer factor between I- and P-frames  (default:
              1.4)

       pb_factor=<value>
              quantizer  factor between P- and B-frames (default:
              1.3)

       qcomp=<0-1> (ABR or two pass)
              quantizer compression (default: 0.6).  A lower val-
              ue  makes the bitrate more constant, while a higher
              value makes the quantization  parameter  more  con-
              stant.





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       cplx_blur=<0-999> (two pass only)
              Temporal  blur  of  the estimated frame complexity,
              before curve compression (default: 20).  Lower val-
              ues  allow the quantizer value to jump around more,
              higher values  force  it  to  vary  more  smoothly.
              cplx_blur  ensures  that  each  I-frame has quality
              comparable to the following P-frames,  and  ensures
              that  alternating  high  and  low complexity frames
              (e.g. low fps animation) do not waste bits on fluc-
              tuating quantizer.

       qblur=<0-99> (two pass only)
              Temporal  blur of the quantization parameter, after
              curve compression (default: 0.5).  Lower values al-
              low the quantizer value to jump around more, higher
              values force it to vary more smoothly.

       zones=<zone0>[/<zone1>[/...]]
              User specified quality for specific parts  (ending,
              credits,  ...).   Each  zone is <start-frame>,<end-
              frame>,<option> where option may be
                 q=<0-51>
                      quantizer
                 b=<0.01-100.0>
                      bitrate multiplier
              NOTE: The quantizer  option  is  not  strictly  en-
              forced.   It  affects  only  the  planning stage of
              ratecontrol, and is still subject to overflow  com-
              pensation and qp_min/qp_max.

       direct_pred=<name>
              Determines  the  type of motion prediction used for
              direct macroblocks in B-frames.
                 none Direct macroblocks are not used.
                 spatial
                      Motion vectors are extrapolated from neigh-
                      boring blocks.  (default)
                 temporal
                      Motion  vectors  are  interpolated from the
                      following P-frame.
                 auto The codec selects between spatial and  tem-
                      poral for each frame.
              Spatial  and  temporal  are  approximately the same
              speed and PSNR, the choice between them depends  on
              the  video  content.   Auto is slightly better, but
              slower.  Auto is most effective when combined  with
              multipass.   direct_pred=none  is  both  slower and
              lower quality.

       (no)weight_b
              Use weighted prediction in B-frames.  Without  this
              option,  bidirectionally predicted macroblocks give
              equal weight to each reference  frame.   With  this
              option,  the weights are determined by the temporal



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              position of the B-frame relative to the references.
              Requires bframes > 1.

       partitions=<list>
              Enable  some  optional  macroblock  types (default:
              p8x8,b8x8,i8x8,i4x4).
                 p8x8 Enable types p16x8, p8x16, p8x8.
                 p4x4 Enable types p8x4,  p4x8,  p4x4.   p4x4  is
                      recommended  only  with subq >= 5, and only
                      at low resolutions.
                 b8x8 Enable types b16x8, b8x16, b8x8.
                 i8x8 Enable type i8x8.  i8x8 has no  effect  un-
                      less 8x8dct is enabled.
                 i4x4 Enable type i4x4.
                 all  Enable all of the above types.
                 none Disable all of the above types.
              Regardless of this option, macroblock types p16x16,
              b16x16, and i16x16 are always enabled.
              The idea is to find the type and size that best de-
              scribe a certain area of the picture.  For example,
              a global pan is better represented by 16x16 blocks,
              while  small  moving objects are better represented
              by smaller blocks.

       (no)8x8dct
              Adaptive spatial transform size: allows macroblocks
              to choose between 4x4 and 8x8 DCT.  Also allows the
              i8x8 macroblock type.  Without  this  option,  only
              4x4 DCT is used.

       me=<name>
              Select fullpixel motion estimation algorithm.
                 dia  diamond search, radius 1 (fast)
                 hex  hexagon search, radius 2 (default)
                 umh  uneven multi-hexagon search (slow)
                 esa  exhaustive search (very slow, and no better
                      than umh)

       me_range=<4-64>
              radius of exhaustive or multi-hexagon motion search
              (default: 16)

       subq=<1-7>
              Adjust  subpel  refinement quality.  This parameter
              controls quality versus speed tradeoffs involved in
              the motion estimation decision process.  subq=5 can
              compress up to 10% better than subq=1.
                 1    Runs fullpixel precision motion  estimation
                      on  all  candidate  macroblock types.  Then
                      selects the best type.   Then  refines  the
                      motion  of  that  type to fast quarterpixel
                      precision (fastest).
                 2    Runs halfpixel precision motion  estimation
                      on  all  candidate  macroblock types.  Then



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                      selects the best type.   Then  refines  the
                      motion  of  that  type to fast quarterpixel
                      precision.
                 3    As 2, but uses a  slower  quarterpixel  re-
                      finement.
                 4    Runs fast quarterpixel precision motion es-
                      timation on all candidate macroblock types.
                      Then  selects the best type.  Then finishes
                      the quarterpixel refinement for that  type.
                 5    Runs  best  quality  quarterpixel precision
                      motion estimation  on  all  candidate  mac-
                      roblock  types,  before  selecting the best
                      type (default).
                 6    Enables  rate-distortion  optimization   of
                      macroblock types in I- and P-frames.
                 7    Enables rate-distortion optimization of mo-
                      tion vectors and intra modes. (best)
              In the above, "all  candidates"  does  not  exactly
              mean all enabled types: 4x4, 4x8, 8x4 are tried on-
              ly if 8x8 is better than 16x16.

       (no)chroma_me
              Takes into account chroma information  during  sub-
              pixel  motion  search (default: enabled).  Requires
              subq>=5.

       (no)mixed_refs
              Allows each 8x8 or 16x8 motion partition  to  inde-
              pendently  select  a reference frame.  Without this
              option, a whole macroblock must use the same refer-
              ence.  Requires frameref>1.

       (no)brdo
              Enables  rate-distortion optimization of macroblock
              types in B-frames.  Requires subq>=6.

       (no)bime
              Refine the two motion vectors used in bidirectional
              macroblocks,  rather than re-using vectors from the
              forward and backward searches.  This option has  no
              effect without B-frames.

       trellis=<0-2>
              rate-distortion optimal quantization
                 0    disabled (default)
                 1    enabled only for the final encode
                 2    enabled  during  all  mode decisions (slow,
                      requires subq>=6)

       deadzone_inter=<0-32>
              Set the size of the inter luma  quantization  dead-
              zone  for  non-trellis  quantization (default: 21).
              Lower values help to preserve fine details and film
              grain  (typically  useful  for high bitrate/quality



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              encode), while higher values help filter out  these
              details  to  save  bits  that can be spent again on
              other macroblocks and frames (typically useful  for
              bitrate-starved  encodes).   It is recommended that
              you start by tweaking deadzone_intra before  chang-
              ing this parameter.

       deadzone_intra=<0-32>
              Set  the  size of the intra luma quantization dead-
              zone for non-trellis  quantization  (default:  11).
              This  option  has the same effect as deadzone_inter
              except that it affects intra frames.  It is  recom-
              mended  that  you  start by tweaking this parameter
              before changing deadzone_inter.

       (no)fast_pskip
              Performs early skip detection in P-frames (default:
              enabled).   This usually improves speed at no cost,
              but it can sometimes  produce  artifacts  in  areas
              with no details, like sky.

       (no)dct_decimate
              Eliminate  dct blocks in P-frames containing only a
              small single coefficient (default: enabled).   This
              will remove some details, so it will save bits that
              can be spent again on other frames, hopefully rais-
              ing  overall  subjective  quality.  If you are com-
              pressing non-anime content with a high  target  bi-
              trate,  you may want to disable this to preserve as
              much detail as possible.

       nr=<0-100000>
              Noise reduction, 0 means disabled.  100-1000  is  a
              useful  range for typical content, but you may want
              to turn it up a bit more  for  very  noisy  content
              (default: 0).  Given its small impact on speed, you
              might want to prefer to  use  this  over  filtering
              noise  away  with  video  filters like denoise3d or
              hqdn3d.

       chroma_qp_offset=<-12-12>
              Use a different quantizer for chroma as compared to
              luma.   Useful  values are in the range <-2-2> (de-
              fault: 0).

       cqm=<flat|jvt|<filename>>
              Either uses a predefined custom quantization matrix
              or loads a JM format matrix file.
                 flat
                      Use  the  predefined  flat  16  matrix (de-
                      fault).
                 jvt
                      Use the predefined JVT matrix.




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                 <filename>
                      Use the provided JM format matrix file.
              NOTE: Windows CMD.EXE users may experience problems
              with  parsing  the  command line if they attempt to
              use all the CQM lists.  This is due  to  a  command
              line  length limitation.  In this case it is recom-
              mended the lists be put into a JM format  CQM  file
              and loaded as specified above.

       cqm4iy=<list> (also see cqm)
              Custom  4x4 intra luminance matrix, given as a list
              of 16 comma separated values in the 1-255 range.

       cqm4ic=<list> (also see cqm)
              Custom 4x4 intra chrominance  matrix,  given  as  a
              list  of  16  comma  separated  values in the 1-255
              range.

       cqm4py=<list> (also see cqm)
              Custom 4x4 inter luminance matrix, given as a  list
              of 16 comma separated values in the 1-255 range.

       cqm4pc=<list> (also see cqm)
              Custom  4x4  inter  chrominance  matrix, given as a
              list of 16 comma  separated  values  in  the  1-255
              range.

       cqm8iy=<list> (also see cqm)
              Custom  8x8 intra luminance matrix, given as a list
              of 64 comma separated values in the 1-255 range.

       cqm8py=<list> (also see cqm)
              Custom 8x8 inter luminance matrix, given as a  list
              of 64 comma separated values in the 1-255 range.

       level_idc=<10-51>
              Set  the bitstream's level as defined by annex A of
              the H.264 standard (default: 51 - Level 5.1).  This
              is  used  for telling the decoder what capabilities
              it needs to support.  Use this  parameter  only  if
              you  know what it means, and you have a need to set
              it.

       threads=<0-16>
              Spawn threads to encode  in  parallel  on  multiple
              CPUs  (default:  1).   This has a slight penalty to
              compression quality.  0 or 'auto' tells x264 to de-
              tect how many CPUs you have and pick an appropriate
              number of threads.

       (no)global_header
              Causes SPS and PPS to appear only once, at the  be-
              ginning of the bitstream (default: disabled).  Some
              players, such as the Sony PSP, require the  use  of



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              this  option.   The default behavior causes SPS and
              PPS to repeat prior to each IDR frame.

       (no)interlaced
              Treat the video content as interlaced.

       log=<-1-3>
              Adjust the amount of logging info  printed  to  the
              screen.
                 -1   none
                  0   Print errors only.
                  1   warnings
                  2   PSNR and other analysis statistics when the
                      encode finishes (default)
                  3   PSNR,  QP,  frametype,  size,   and   other
                      statistics for every frame

       (no)psnr
              Print signal-to-noise ratio statistics.
              NOTE:  The  'Y', 'U', 'V', and 'Avg' PSNR fields in
              the summary are not mathematically sound (they  are
              simply  the  average of per-frame PSNRs).  They are
              kept only for comparison to the JM reference codec.
              For  all  other  purposes,  please  use  either the
              'Global' PSNR, or the per-frame  PSNRs  printed  by
              log=3.

       (no)ssim
              Print  the  Structural  Similarity  Metric results.
              This is an alternative to PSNR, and may  be  better
              correlated  with  the perceived quality of the com-
              pressed video.

       (no)visualize
              Enable x264 visualizations during encoding.  If the
              x264  on your system supports it, a new window will
              be opened during the  encoding  process,  in  which
              x264  will  attempt  to  present an overview of how
              each frame gets encoded.  Each block  type  on  the
              visualized movie will be colored as follows:
                 red/pink
                      intra block
                 blue
                      inter block
                 green
                      skip block
                 yellow
                      B-block
              This  feature  can  be  considered experimental and
              subject to change.  In particular,  it  depends  on
              x264  being  compiled  with visualizations enabled.
              Note that as of writing this, x264 pauses after en-
              coding  and visualizing each frame, waiting for the
              user to press a key, at which point the next  frame



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              will be encoded.

   xvfw (-xvfwopts)
       Encoding  with Video for Windows codecs is mostly obsolete
       unless you wish to encode to some obscure fringe codec.

       codec=<name>
              The name of the binary codec file with which to en-
              code.

       compdata=<file>
              The  name  of  the codec settings file (like first-
              pass.mcf) created by vfw2menc.

   MPEG muxer (-mpegopts)
       The MPEG muxer can generate 5 types of  streams,  each  of
       which  has reasonable default parameters that the user can
       override.  Generally, when generating MPEG  files,  it  is
       advisable  to  disable  MEncoder's  frame-skip  code  (see
       -noskip, -mc as well as the  harddup  and  softskip  video
       filters).

       EXAMPLE:
                 format=mpeg2:tsaf:vbitrate=8000

       format=<mpeg1 | mpeg2 | xvcd | xsvcd | dvd | pes1 | pes2>
              stream  format (default: mpeg2).  pes1 and pes2 are
              very  broken  formats  (no  pack  header   and   no
              padding), but VDR uses them; do not choose them un-
              less you know exactly what you are doing.

       size=<up to 65535>
              Pack size in bytes, do not change unless  you  know
              exactly what you are doing (default: 2048).

       muxrate=<int>
              Nominal  muxrate in kbit/s used in the pack headers
              (default: 1800 kb/s).  Will be updated as necessary
              in the case of 'format=mpeg1' or 'mpeg2'.

       tsaf
              Sets  timestamps on all frames, if possible; recom-
              mended when  format=dvd.   If  dvdauthor  complains
              with   a   message  like  "..audio  sector  out  of
              range...", you probably did not enable this option.

       interleaving2
              Uses  a  better  algorithm  to interleave audio and
              video packets, based on the principle that the mux-
              er  will  always  try  to  fill the stream with the
              largest percentage of free space.

       vdelay=<1-32760>
              Initial video delay time, in milliseconds (default:



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              0),  use it if you want to delay video with respect
              to audio.  It doesn't work with :drop.

       adelay=<1-32760>
              Initial audio delay time, in milliseconds (default:
              0),  use it if you want to delay audio with respect
              to video.

       drop
              When used with vdelay the muxer drops the  part  of
              audio that was anticipated.

       vwidth, vheight=<1-4095>
              Set  the  video  width  and  height  when  video is
              MPEG-1/2.

       vpswidth, vpsheight=<1-4095>
              Set pan and scan video width and height when  video
              is MPEG-2.

       vaspect=<1 | 4/3 | 16/9 | 221/100>
              Sets the display aspect ratio for MPEG-2 video.  Do
              not use it on MPEG-1 or the resulting aspect  ratio
              will be completely wrong.

       vbitrate=<int>
              Sets  the  video  bitrate  in  kbit/s  for MPEG-1/2
              video.

       vframerate=<24000/1001 | 24 |  25  |  30000/1001  |  30  |
       50  | 60000/1001 | 60 >
              Sets the framerate for MPEG-1/2 video.  This option
              will be ignored if used with the telecine option.

       telecine
              Enables  3:2 pulldown soft telecine mode: The muxer
              will make the video stream look like it was encoded
              at 30000/1001 fps.  It only works with MPEG-2 video
              when the output framerate is 24000/1001  fps,  con-
              vert it with -ofps if necessary.  Any other framer-
              ate is incompatible with this option.

       film2pal
              Enables FILM to PAL and NTSC to PAL  soft  telecine
              mode:  The  muxer  will  make the video stream look
              like it was encoded at 25 fps.  It only works  with
              MPEG-2   video   when   the   output  framerate  is
              24000/1001 fps, convert it with -ofps if necessary.
              Any  other  framerate is incompatible with this op-
              tion.

       tele_src and tele_dest
              Enables arbitrary telecining using  Donand  Graft's
              DGPulldown  code.  You need to specify the original



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              and the desired framerate; the muxer will make  the
              video  stream  look  like it was encoded at the de-
              sired framerate.  It only works with  MPEG-2  video
              when the input framerate is smaller than the output
              framerate and the framerate increase is <= 1.5.

              EXAMPLE:
                 tele_src=25,tele_dest=30000/1001
                      PAL to NTSC telecining

       vbuf_size=<40-1194>
              Sets the size of the video  decoder's  buffer,  ex-
              pressed  in  kilobytes.  Specify it only if the bi-
              trate of the video stream is too high for the  cho-
              sen  format and if you know perfectly well what you
              are doing.  A too high value may  lead  to  an  un-
              playable movie, depending on the player's capabili-
              ties.  When muxing HDTV video a value of 400 should
              suffice.

       abuf_size=<4-64>
              Sets  the  size  of the audio decoder's buffer, ex-
              pressed in kilobytes.  The same  principle  as  for
              vbuf_size applies.

   FFmpeg libavformat demuxers (-lavfdopts)
       analyzeduration=<value>
              Maximum  length  in  seconds  to analyze the stream
              properties.

       format=<value>
              Force a specific libavformat demuxer.

       probesize=<value>
              Maximum amount of data to probe during  the  detec-
              tion  phase.   In  the  case  of MPEG-TS this value
              identifies the maximum  number  of  TS  packets  to
              scan.

   FFmpeg libavformat muxers (-lavfopts) (also see -of lavf)
       delay=<value>
              Currently only meaningful for MPEG[12]: Maximum al-
              lowed distance, in seconds, between  the  reference
              timer  of  the output stream (SCR) and the decoding
              timestamp (DTS) for any stream  present  (demux  to
              decode  delay).  Default is 0.7 (as mandated by the
              standards defined by MPEG).  Higher values  require
              larger buffers and must not be used.

       format=<container_format>
              Override  which  container  format to mux into (de-
              fault: autodetect from output file extension).
                 mpg
                      MPEG-1 systems and MPEG-2 PS



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                 asf
                      Advanced Streaming Format
                 avi
                      Audio Video Interleave file
                 wav
                      Waveform Audio
                 swf
                      Macromedia Flash
                 flv
                      Macromedia Flash video files
                 rm
                      RealAudio and RealVideo
                 au
                      SUN AU format
                 nut
                      NUT open container format (experimental)
                 mov
                      QuickTime
                 mp4
                      MPEG-4 format
                 dv
                      Sony Digital Video container

       muxrate=<rate>
              Nominal bitrate of the multiplex, in bits per  sec-
              ond;  currently it is meaningful only for MPEG[12].
              Sometimes raising it is necessary in order to avoid
              "buffer underflows".

       packetsize=<size>
              Size, expressed in bytes, of the unitary packet for
              the chosen format.  When muxing to MPEG[12]  imple-
              mentations the default values are: 2324 for [S]VCD,
              2048 for all others formats.

       preload=<distance>
              Currently only  meaningful  for  MPEG[12]:  Initial
              distance,  in  seconds, between the reference timer
              of the output stream (SCR) and the decoding  times-
              tamp  (DTS) for any stream present (demux to decode
              delay).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       There are a number of environment variables  that  can  be
       used to control the behavior of MPlayer and MEncoder.

       MPLAYER_CHARSET (also see -msgcharset)
              Convert  console  messages to the specified charset
              (default: autodetect).  A value of  "noconv"  means
              no conversion.

       MPLAYER_HOME
              Directory where MPlayer looks for user settings.




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       MPLAYER_VERBOSE (also see -v and -msglevel)
              Set  the initial verbosity level across all message
              modules (default: 0).  The resulting verbosity cor-
              responds  to  that of -msglevel 5 plus the value of
              MPLAYER_VERBOSE.

   libaf:
       LADSPA_PATH
              If LADSPA_PATH is set, it searches for  the  speci-
              fied  file.   If  it  is not set, you must supply a
              fully specified pathname.  FIXME: This is also men-
              tioned in the ladspa section.

   libdvdcss:
       DVDCSS_CACHE
              Specify  a  directory  in  which to store title key
              values.  This will speed up  descrambling  of  DVDs
              which are in the cache.  The DVDCSS_CACHE directory
              is created if it does not exist, and a subdirectory
              is  created named after the DVD's title or manufac-
              turing date.  If DVDCSS_CACHE is not set or is emp-
              ty,  libdvdcss  will use the default value which is
              "${HOME}/.dvdcss/" under Unix and "C:\Documents and
              Settings\$USER\Application    Data\dvdcss\"   under
              Win32.  The special value "off" disables caching.

       DVDCSS_METHOD
              Sets the authentication and decryption method  that
              libdvdcss will use to read scrambled discs.  Can be
              one of title, key or disc.
                 key
                      is the default method.  libdvdcss will  use
                      a  set of calculated player keys to try and
                      get the disc key.  This  can  fail  if  the
                      drive  does not recognize any of the player
                      keys.
                 disc
                      is a fallback method when key  has  failed.
                      Instead  of  using  player  keys, libdvdcss
                      will crack the disc key using a brute force
                      algorithm.   This  process is CPU intensive
                      and requires 64 MB of memory to store  tem-
                      porary data.
                 title
                      is the fallback when all other methods have
                      failed.  It does not rely on a key exchange
                      with the DVD drive, but rather uses a cryp-
                      to attack to guess the title key.  On  rare
                      cases  this  may  fail because there is not
                      enough encrypted data on the disc  to  per-
                      form a statistical attack, but in the other
                      hand it is the only way to  decrypt  a  DVD
                      stored  on  a  hard disc, or a DVD with the
                      wrong region on an RPC2 drive.



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       DVDCSS_RAW_DEVICE
              Specify the raw device to use.   Exact  usage  will
              depend  on your operating system, the Linux utility
              to set up  raw  devices  is  raw(8)  for  instance.
              Please note that on most operating systems, using a
              raw device requires highly aligned  buffers:  Linux
              requires  a 2048 bytes alignment (which is the size
              of a DVD sector).

       DVDCSS_VERBOSE
              Sets the libdvdcss verbosity level.
                 0    Outputs no messages at all.
                 1    Outputs error messages to stderr.
                 2    Outputs error messages and  debug  messages
                      to stderr.

       DVDREAD_NOKEYS
              Skip  retrieving  all  keys  on startup.  Currently
              disabled.

       HOME   FIXME: Document this.

   libao2:
       AO_SUN_DISABLE_SAMPLE_TIMING
              FIXME: Document this.

       AUDIODEV
              FIXME: Document this.

       AUDIOSERVER
              Specifies the Network Audio System server to  which
              the  nas audio output driver should connect and the
              transport that should be used.  If unset DISPLAY is
              used  instead.  The transport can be one of tcp and
              unix.  Syntax is tcp/<somehost>:<someport>,  <some-
              host>:<instancenumber>  or [unix]:<instancenumber>.
              The NAS base port is 8000 and  <instancenumber>  is
              added to that.

              EXAMPLES:
                 AUDIOSERVER=somehost:0
                      Connect to NAS server on somehost using de-
                      fault port and transport.
                 AUDIOSERVER=tcp/somehost:8000
                      Connect to NAS server on somehost listening
                      on TCP port 8000.
                 AUDIOSERVER=(unix)?:0
                      Connect  to NAS server instance 0 on local-
                      host using unix domain sockets.

       DISPLAY
              FIXME: Document this.





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   vidix:
       VIDIX_CRT
              FIXME: Document this.

   osdep:
       TERM   FIXME: Document this.

   libvo:
       DISPLAY
              FIXME: Document this.

       FRAMEBUFFER
              FIXME: Document this.

       HOME   FIXME: Document this.

   libmpdemux:
       HOME   FIXME: Document this.

       HOMEPATH
              FIXME: Document this.

       http_proxy
              FIXME: Document this.

       LOGNAME
              FIXME: Document this.

       USERPROFILE
              FIXME: Document this.

   libmpcodecs:
       XANIM_MOD_DIR
              FIXME: Document this.

   GUI:
       CHARSET
              FIXME: Document this.

       DISPLAY
              FIXME: Document this.

       HOME   FIXME: Document this.

   libavformat:
       AUDIO_FLIP_LEFT
              FIXME: Document this.

       BKTR_DEV
              FIXME: Document this.

       BKTR_FORMAT
              FIXME: Document this.




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       BKTR_FREQUENCY
              FIXME: Document this.

       http_proxy
              FIXME: Document this.

       no_proxy
              FIXME: Document this.

FILES
       /usr/:local/:etc/:mplayer/:mplayer.conf
              MPlayer system-wide settings

       /usr/:local/:etc/:mplayer/:mencoder.conf
              MEncoder system-wide settings

       ~/.mplayer/:config
              MPlayer user settings

       ~/.mplayer/:mencoder.conf
              MEncoder user settings

       ~/.mplayer/:input.conf
              input bindings (see '-input keylist' for  the  full
              list)

       ~/.mplayer/:gui.conf
              GUI configuration file

       ~/.mplayer/:gui.pl
              GUI playlist

       ~/.mplayer/:font/
              font  directory (There must be a font.desc file and
              files with .RAW extension.)

       ~/.mplayer/:DVDkeys/
              cached CSS keys

       Assuming that /path/:to/:movie.avi is  played,  MPlayer
       searches for sub files
              in this order:
              /path/:to/:movie.sub
              ~/.mplayer/:sub/:movie.sub

EXAMPLES OF MPLAYER USAGE
       Quickstart DVD playing:
       mplayer dvd://1

       Play in Japanese with English subtitles:
       mplayer dvd://1 -alang ja -slang en

       Play only chapters 5, 6, 7:
       mplayer dvd://1 -chapter 5-7



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MPlayer(1)               The Movie Player              MPlayer(1)


       Play only titles 5, 6, 7:
       mplayer dvd://5-7

       Play a multiangle DVD:
       mplayer dvd://1 -dvdangle 2

       Play from a different DVD device:
       mplayer dvd://1 -dvd-device /dev/:dvd2

       Play DVD video from a directory with VOB files:
       mplayer dvd://1 -dvd-device /path/:to/:directory/

       Copy a DVD title to hard disk, saving to file title1.vob :
       mplayer dvd://1 -dumpstream -dumpfile title1.vob

       Stream from HTTP:
       mplayer http://mplayer.hq/example.avi

       Stream using RTSP:
       mplayer rtsp://server.example.com/streamName

       Convert subtitles to MPsub format:
       mplayer dummy.avi -sub source.sub -dumpmpsub

       Convert  subtitles  to  MPsub  format without watching the
       movie:
       mplayer /dev/:zero -rawvideo pal:fps=xx -demuxer rawvideo -vc null -vo null -noframedrop -benchmark -sub source.sub -dumpmpsub

       input from standard V4L:
       mplayer tv:// -tv driver=v4l:width=640:height=480:outfmt=i420 -vc rawi420 -vo xv

       Playback on Zoran cards (old style, deprecated):
       mplayer -vo zr -vf scale=352:288 file.avi

       Playback on Zoran cards (new style):
       mplayer -vo zr2 -vf scale=352:288,zrmjpeg file.avi

       Play a 6-channel AAC file with only two speakers:
       mplayer -rawaudio format=0xff -demuxer rawaudio -af pan=2:.32:.32:.39:.06:.06:.39:.17:-.17:-.17:.17:.33:.33 adts_he-aac160_51.aac
       You might want to play a bit with the pan values (e.g mul-
       tiply  with a value) to increase volume or avoid clipping.

       checkerboard invert with geq filter:
       mplayer -vf geq='128+(p(XY)-128)*(0.5-gt(mod(X/SW128)64))*(0.5-gt(mod(Y/SH128)64))*4'

EXAMPLES OF MENCODER USAGE
       Encode DVD title #2, only selected chapters:
       mencoder dvd://2 -chapter 10-15 -o title2.avi -oac copy -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4

       Encode DVD title #2, resizing to 640x480:
       mencoder dvd://2 -vf scale=640:480 -o title2.avi -oac copy -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4

       Encode DVD title #2, resizing to 512xHHH (keep aspect  ra-
       tio):



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MPlayer(1)               The Movie Player              MPlayer(1)


       mencoder dvd://2 -vf scale -zoom -xy 512 -o title2.avi -oac copy -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4

       The  same,  but with bitrate set to 1800kbit and optimized
       macroblocks:
       mencoder dvd://2 -o title2.avi -oac copy -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4:mbd=1:vbitrate=1800

       The same, but with MJPEG compression:
       mencoder dvd://2 -o title2.avi -oac copy -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mjpeg:mbd=1:vbitrate=1800

       Encode all *.jpg files in the current directory:
       mencoder "mf://*.jpg" -mf fps=25 -o output.avi -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4

       Encode from a tuner (specify a format with -vf format):
       mencoder -tv driver=v4l:width=640:height=480 tv:// -o tv.avi -ovc raw

       Encode from a pipe:
       rar p test-SVCD.rar | mencoder -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4:vbitrate=800 -ofps 24 -

BUGS
       Don't panic.  If you find one, report it to us, but please
       make  sure  you  have read all of the documentation first.
       Also look out for smileys. :) Many bugs are the result  of
       incorrect  setup  or  parameter  usage.  The bug reporting
       section   of   the   documentation    (http://www.mplayer-
       hq.hu/:DOCS/:HTML/:en/:bugreports.html)  explains  how  to
       create useful bug reports.

AUTHORS
       MPlayer was initially written by Arpad Gereoffy.  See  the
       AUTHORS file for a list of some of the many other contrib-
       utors.

       MPlayer is (C) 2000-2007 The MPlayer Team

       This man page was written mainly by Gabucino,  Jonas  Jer-
       mann  and  Diego Biurrun.  It is maintained by Diego Biur-
       run.  Please send mails about it to the MPlayer-DOCS mail-
       ing list.  Translation specific mails belong on the MPlay-
       er-translations mailing list.


















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